Why did the Abbasid Caliphate Collapse?

published on July 31, 2020

This video is made in collaboration with alma-tadema a channel that is focusing on islamic history i really recommend to watch the video till the end to understand better this incredible chapter of the islamic world after you watch it you can go and

Check omocha dima channel and hit a subscribe button to learn more the islamic prophet muhammad had initially few followers in number but in the first part of the seventh century things will change rapidly and his campaigns will

Ensure the start of the islamic religion mohammad united the tribes under the constitution of Medina in December 629 after 8 years of fighting with mekin tribes hukumat gathered an army of 10,000 and entered on the city of Mecca

When he died it's believed that most of Arabia converted or embraced Islam the rashidun caliphate was the first of the four arab caliphates which existed after the death of the islamic prophet the Empire was ruled by successors all

Caliphs when Muhammad died in 632 the next part of the early Islamic period will be ruled by the rashidun in this time the new religion expanded the rashidun collapsed and umayyad caliphate was established in 661 the Umayyads

Continued the muslim conquests and at its peak it was one of the largest empires in the history the dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the opposites in 750 the cliffs of this empire were arabs and it's believed

That they were descendant from Abbas in Abdul Mutallab one of the youngest uncle's of Muhammad so it was still an Arab Islamic empire but a dynasty changed we can often cities in history the Abbasid period is often considered

The Islamic Golden Age the Muslim world became a center of science development and education having this geographical position both Muslim and non-muslim scholars so to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic this

Dynasty had many caliphs all safar was the first caliph the second one al masud who changed the capital to their own City which became MCDOT he was followed by Almaty al-hadi Harun al-rashid al-amin who was killed in 813 during the

Civil war with his brother al Mamoon who stayed as the seventh caliph of the Empire during his reign alchemy category astronomy and trade developed Alma moons relations with Abbas on times were marked by huge

Efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science the Caliph gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad whom he treated with tolerance he sent an emissary to the Besant and Empire to collect the most famous

Manuscripts death and had him translated into Arabic and he even managed to win against some rebellions there are more to talk about him and about other caliphs but this is a topic for another video

On ninth of August 8 33 c e al Mamoon died usually but someone like him a powerful and stable of war you'd expect his son to succeed him his son was indeed a great military commander he had the competency but he didn't succeed al

Mamoon al Mamoon was instead succeeded by his brother who came to be known as a Molson and there was one reason behind this the Turkic mercenaries during armaments rain on multi-sim had been in control of a

Private army of Turkic nomads from the Eurasian steps al Mamoon had used them in various military campaigns while the biggest advantages that the mercenaries had was that they were loyal to gold so they could help tip the balance of power

In the Empire in the caliphs favor the Caliph didn't have to rely on his vassals anymore it was because of this force that our multi-sim took control of the empire after his father's death this probably looked like a good idea at

The time a similar thing has been tried throughout history and it has worked exactly zero times because those mercenaries usually come to the realization that the emperor needs the mercenaries more than the mercenaries

Need the Emperor the Turks started taking over the establishment this broke up into many conflicts with the author ambassador bureaucracy and Al multi-sim even founded a new city samara and took his Turkic establishment there Turkic

Influence kept growing even after almost since death in 842 C alum of the walk girl tried to get rid of them he even had two of the most powerful Turkic generals arrested but the Turks along with his son who was angry at not being

The heir apparent plotted his assassination and eventually killed him in 861 see this was effectively the end of AB acid power from then on all Abbasid caliphs were puppets of one Turk in general or the other this period is

Known as the anarchy of Samarra eventually Al Motta Waka's grandson did move the capital back to Bach thought but it didn't change much the cancer that Al multi-sim had exposed kalfa to had completely taken over all aspects of

The empire a position of Amira Amara or commander in chief was established for the Turks the ambassadors continue to lose territory the lost all of Arabia which broke up into various tribal entities they lost Egypt which was taken

By the Tao and it their former vassals their clients spotted in Persia or overthrown by the safar ins who even threatened both odd itself Syria broke up into independent entities early on but was later

Cannibalized by the Egyptian dominance the Ambassador shrunk to a quarter of its size than 50 years there was a brief period of recovery from 892 ze to around 904 see who managed to bring quite a bit of former ambassador land back into

Their control however the Empire was internally plagued by the same issues discontent among the log of local dynasties was growing during the next 40 years the middle amara kept installing and opposing killers a Bassets kept

Losing and gaining territory instability was it at its worst the Caliphate even alternated twice between the same two key ellipse for a while former ambassadors that paid lip service to the Ambassador kept growing in control

Eventually in 945 see a dynasty from de la defeated the Ambassador army under the command of to jean de middle o Mara and March unbothered for the first time in 300 years the Caliph was a vassal of another roller

The poet's replaced the Turkic as the puppet masters they became the protectors or Sultana of the Caliphate the Caliph usually kept control over the capital city of Baghdad this was usually done with the help of a

Certain group of ruffians called I our own these were class of warriors which served as local gangs taking advantage of the increased instability due to the sheer Sunni tensions these Sunni tensions had been fueled by the rise of

The fundaments in Egypt and North Africa by 970 see they had taken over Egypt making a Cairo their capital a lot of people in the Ambassador realm had sympathies for Shias also the poet's were Shia themselves at this point the

Shears weren't exactly an entirely different sect as it is now it was mostly just a political division the food systems themselves weren't very different it was been nothing out of the usual except the Fatima this also called

Themselves Kahless the rightful ones since Shias believed the Caliphate should have stayed in Ali's descendants and the Fatima's claimed descent from Ali and his wife fatima vomits from whom they got their name the shiaa

Caliphate was doing great at a time the Sunni one wasn't declined so naturally a lot of people were starting to align their sympathies with the Shia killeth so the Abbasid caliph al carded published the box Ottoman efest oh it

Was basically like a mini medieval birther movement the kill if God many genealogist and scholars to prove that the fragments were indeed not font of us descendants but rather in a shocking twist or descendants of a Jew which were

Considered an enemy of Islam itself meanwhile the fragments were like I'm sorry I can't hear you over the sound of my armies conquered Syria and Palestine meanwhile in the year 1040 see an re use turkey clan from the Eurasian steps had

Just defeated the ghaznavids in the Battle of thumpin Aachen in 1055 C dollar debate captured both odd from the poets some say on the request of the opacity killer himself though who based brother Charlie be married his daughter

Hot on Khadija to the Caliph this was done in the hopes that the Caliphate and the Sultanate would emerge through their son this didn't work out and their Sultana later tried the same with his daughter but that didn't work out either

Things were pretty good over the next four years the Caliph ran the religion and the soldiers ran the Empire it was a pretty good partnership except the Seljuks had just started kicking the byzantine gates in 1071 see ala

Porcelain defeated the Byzantines with basically no effort at the Battle of manciple the Byzantines couldn't resist the Turks anymore turkic tribes started settling in the previously Byzantine region of Anatolia

Byzantine Emperor Alexios called on the Catholic Church to help curb the Muslim expansion and in 1095 see Pope Urban in the Council of Clermont declared a crusade Deus vult God Felson as you might expect the Muslim Pope the

Caliph suddenly had a relevance boost when he helped rally the Sunnis to the cause of defending the Holy Land well more Anatolia to the Holy Land in 1099 see Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders over the next fifty years the

Relationship between the ambassador and the seljuqs fell apart because the Sultan's thought the a passes for interfering too much in matters of the state the Empire itself wasn't stable many princes and other Turkic dynasties

Around the Empire were contending for the crow it was a time for the ambassador to take advantage of this in 1125 c e al moustache it wasn't powerful enough to build an army and repel however is

Rebellion didn't go for they met the Seljuks right outside both odd and were defeated and moustache it was put under house arrest his son similarly was hostile to the soldiers so much so that they deposed him and he

Fled to Isfahan and was killed by the assassins on the way there finally in 1157 Al Motta fee once again declared independence this time he was able to fight back and defend his realm freeing it from the soldiers after 200 years of

Occupancy by foreign powers the Ambassador independent over the next 50 years the Abbasid caliph had managed to secure most of Iraq however the most thread the Kal that had ever faced it was coming a force unlike any the world

Had ever seen took over most of Eurasia by 1227 see the year of Genghis Khan or Ginga sconce death the Mongols were standing on the gates of Persia they had taken over most of China the Eurasian steps horison and even Persia they had

Defeated the once-mighty Horace myth empire that had felled the vacuum left behind for the soldiers in 1258 see Allah go far laid siege to back thought the heartland of the Islamic Golden Age Allah who had demanded submission from

The Caliph which the Calif ill-advisedly refused Allah who sought to make an example out of the Caliph for this insolence according to some sources almost awesome didn't think it was an invasion and rather just another raiding

Party many of which the Calvin had pushed back on January 29th the siege of bethought began the Calif reportedly neglected to put a proper force together reinforced his city's defenses not that I would have made any difference

According to some sources Laughlin asked for all of the city's elite the rest are cracy the scholars the engineers and the bureaucracy all of them to come outside city for negotiation as around 3,000 of cities

Elites went for negotiations they were all murdered On February 10th the city surrendered the Mongols went on to Massacre the city and its population some 200,000 to 800,000 or maybe even a million people were killed the stench of

The dead bodies was so bad that how who didn't stay in the city for long the survivor said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books and flung into the river and read from the blood

Of the scientists and philosophers killed the city was so thoroughly destroyed that even today no signs of the core city the circular city of peace have been found the Caliph was killed the mongols feared spilling royal blood

So he was rolled up in a carpet and trampled by horses the end of the ambassador's in båstad however one of the Abbasid princes was given refuge by the Egyptian Mamluks he and his descendants now the title of the kill

Only in name for the next 300 years in 1517 seee the Ottoman Sultan Selim II ava's invaded Egypt and took the title of the Caliph for himself almost a millennia after Muhammad's death the title of the Caliph went to someone

Outside Muhammad's tribe keresh see you next time we can check this Instagram to learn more about world stories also don't forget to subscribe to anima to learn more about the Islamic history

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