Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox

by birtanpublished on September 14, 2020

Black holes are the most powerful things in the universe strong enough to rip whole stars into atoms sized pieces well this is scary enough they have an even more powerful and dark property they might delete the universe itself black holes in a nutshell a black hole appears

When an extraordinary amount of matter is concentrated in a tiny space at their center gravity is almost infinitely strong and whatever gets too close is ripped into its elementary particles not even light can escape black holes and so

We perceive them as spheres of blackness if you were to fall into a black hole nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed its outer border the event horizon you can imagine this as swimming in a river that ends in an

Enormous waterfall as you float along imperceptibly the stream gets faster and faster even if you can't see the waterfall yet you could swim to safety until without even noticing it you cross the point of no return no matter how

Fast you try to swim now the stream will pull you towards certain death nothing can escape a black hole waterfall once it gets too close this border completely separates black holes from the rest of the universe we

Can't access them unless we're willing to never return so there's no way of telling what's really going on inside black holes but we have a few ideas about what's going on right at their very edges

Black holes radiate their mass away like a hot pot on a stove losing its water esteem this is called Hawking radiation black holes constantly lose an extremely tiny amount of their mass a process that's unbelievably slow it will take a

Black hole with a mass of our Sun 10,000 billion billion billion billion billion billion years to lose zero point zero zero zero zero zero zero one percent of its mass this is happening constantly and unstoppably

And as it goes on it speeds up more and more in the far far future when the last star in the universe has been dead for trillions of years black holes will become tinier and tinier until they evaporate and disappear leaving behind

Just a bit of radiation but this is a problem because in the process of disappearing black holes might delete something fundamental information – what is information information is nothing tangible it's typically understood as a

Property of the arrangement of particles what does this mean imagine a bunch of carbon atoms arrange them in a certain way and you get coal arrange them in a different way and you get a diamond the answers are the same what changes is the

Information if we make this more complex and add in a few more atoms we get a banana change the arrangement of the atoms and we get a squirrel the basic building blocks of everything in the universe are the same and don't care if

They're part of a bird or a rock or a cup of coffee without information everything in the universe would be the same according to the theory of quantum mechanics information is indestructible it might change shape but it can never

Be lost for example if you burn a piece of paper you get ash that ash will never become paper again but if you were able to carefully collect every single carbon atom in the ash and measured the exact properties of the smoke and heat

Radiating from the fire you could in theory reconstruct the paper the information of the paper is still in the universe it's not lost it's just hard to read if you could somehow measure every single atom and particle

And wave of radiation in the universe you could see and track every bit of information there is hypothetically you could see the entire history of the universe right back to the Big Bang and here

Black holes trip us up information tells us how things are different from each other and what used to be what black holes do the opposite they take different things and make them the same they destroy

Information this creates the information paradox and this is a serious problem the information paradox it's fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost existing not existing without

Information everything is relative when it comes to our understanding of reality we need absolute how could we solve this paradox there are a few possibilities one information is lost irretrievably and forever this means we have to nix

All our laws of physics throwing out a lot of stuff that's worked very well so far and to start from scratch what those new laws of physics would look like or what that means for us nobody knows this is a little frightening but also kind of

Exciting too information is hidden maybe a little part of the black hole splits often forms a baby universe the information would be transferred into this new weird place where we could never observe or interact with it but

Technically it would not be lost it's like having a broken hard drive with all your family photos that you could never access sure it's nice that they've not been deleted but also not very helpful or maybe black holes don't disappear

Completely after the end of their life cycles but a little piece is left an information diamond like a clown car filled with an infinite amount of information clowns but there's a third option information is safe after all not

Lost or hidden perhaps we've just been looking at this whole thing the wrong way we know that black holes trap information and might delete it later but we never thought about what they do with it in the

Meantime we're two black holes store their information cosmic housekeeping let's create a black hole with dirty laundry first we fill up a room with laundry baskets the more laundry you want to

Store the more baskets you put in the room but at some point every single basket is full and the room is completely stacked not a single extra sock fits in the room is at maximum capacity but if we still squeeze the

Sock in with a lot of energy and violence the room collapses in on itself and forms a black hole but the capacity of the room itself has not changed fitting in more stuff for information is still impossible so what happens if we

Throw more laundry into it the room itself gets a little bit bigger to make space for the new information it turns out a black hole grows its surface by a tiny pixel for each bit of information we throw into it in a nutshell more

Information means more surface area the information gets painted on the surface similar to what happens when we throw a stone into a pond after the stone sinks to the bottom we can't see it anymore but we can tell that something went in

From the ripples on the surface of the pond even the smallest black hole can store more information on its surface than all the data ever produced in human history they do this by storing information in a type of pixel that is

Unbelievably tiny black holes are the ultimate hard drive this is a bit like taking a paper bag and turning it into an e-book to things that look completely different but their content is the same it's just encoded and memorized in

Another way black holes swallowing stars and planets is a bit like transferring a whole library onto an e-reader this solution is called the holographic principle but if it's correct then

Everything we thought we knew about the universe is wrong the universe is a hologram if information is actually stored on the boundary of a black hole the Hawking radiation has a chance of learning about the information encoded

There and can carry it away so information is not lost when black holes fade away and we do not need to redo physics the information paradox is resolved but we still have to change our understanding

Of reality in a fundamental way if everything that falls into the black hole is stored on its event horizon that basically means that three-dimensional stuff is encoded on a flat surface we have a name for this a hologram a

Hologram is like a 3d photo a flat piece of plastic that encodes a three-dimensional image a black hole is like a hologram because everything inside it is encoded on its event horizon a person inside a

Black hole would experience their usual three-dimensional life but for us on the outside they are flattened images on the surface of the black hole the consequence of this is counterintuitive but stay with us for a moment

Black holes are very extreme objects but they're still bound to the same rules as everything else so if this crazy qu ality between 2d and 3d works for black holes then it might work for the whole universe and you in it since a person

Inside a black hole would not realize that they're encoded on a flat surface we might share the same fate you really might be stretched over a flat screen at the end of the universe the science behind this is complicated

And really weird with toy universes to play with string theory and a lot of mass we'll talk about this more in another video regardless of what the true nature of the universe really is we just know that it's strange and

Complicated and we have to do a lot more physics to understand it but black holes might be key to understanding the nature of reality itself this video was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and realized

With the scientific advice of Alessandro Swan drainie

Related Videos

hey guys techrax here coming at you guys with another giveaway this is gonna be an iPhone 5s two of these brand new phones not the one in this video guys this i...
hey guy there's a popular game in the app store called flappy bird right now and it's supposedly really annoying believe it or not I haven't played ...
hey guys tech Rex here so right here with me I have an Apple iPhone 5s this is the gold one I also have with me some liquid nitrogen yes this is the real deal a...
hey guys techrax here right here I have the iPhone 5s with me this is the champagne or the gold color I still can't really figure out if it's champagne ...
hey guys tear cracks here so this video really exciting video I have the new Samsung Galaxy s5 for you guys this is the long-awaited cellular devices releases i...
everyone techrax here in this video I've got the latest Samsung Galaxy s5 right here as well as the Apple iPhone 5s and we're going to be doing a simple...
everyone techrax here in this video guys have a really exciting device this is the Samsung Galaxy s5 charcoal black and I'm really liking I after seeing the...
everyone techrax here here with me off the Samsung Galaxy s5 this is a perfectly fine s5 it is cracked from the drop test that I had with also one minor neck as...
hey guys tetrax here so in this video I'm going to try and burn the newly released Samsung Galaxy s5 this is the shimmering white 16 gigabyte model and if y...
everyone techrax here so I got my burn Samsung Galaxy s5 and I wanted to see whether the heartbeat sensor would still work the heart monitor on your galaxy s5 a...
hey guys Tech Rex here so I'm really excited to bring you guys a giveaway for my channel but this time I'm actually teaming up with a buddy of mine your...
hey guys techrax here so in this video I'm going to be hopefully instructing you guys how to make your very own a tech sandwich slash burger slash meal so y...
hey guys techrax here so I've got a galaxy s5 here this is the copper gold hopefully you guys can see pretty well it is sunset so it's getting a little ...
hey guys techrax here so right here with me I have a professional deep fryer in here is already some canola or corn or whatever oil I don't know vegetable o...
hey guys techrax here so just trying to make this video short and quick i'm having recently i got five hundred thousand subscribers and yeah most of you guy...
hey guys texture so in this video I have a drop test on the latest LG g3 device now this is actually the gold-coloured LG g3 this has not been released in the U...
hey guys techrax here so in this video we'll teach you guys how to make your iPhone indestructible this is essentially a case that's been around for yea...
hey guys techrax here soon in this video we had a train run over the iPhone 5s so we actually did this in two different instances initially we had a Space Gray ...
hey guys tech cracks here so in this video we're going to be dropped testing the newly released Amazon fire phone this is exclusive for AT&T and I belie...
hey guys techrax here so right here with me I have the Amazon fire phone this is the one I dropped and you know I thought what better what else do I do with thi...