What`s Jewish faith and Judaism Theory?

by birtanpublished on July 9, 2020

All tidied the Lord the Lord Jehovah hasgiven unto you these 15 10 10commandments for all to obey everyculture religion and Empire in historyseems to have one glaring misconceptionthat it just can't shake much like finalexams in the common cold it's annoying

And largely unavoidable fact of life inthe case of Judaism the question isn'twhat's misunderstood but rather what hisins misunderstood today we'll talk aboutJewish history that is the history ofboth the Jewish religion and a procedure

Keeble but first I need some disclaimersand by some I mean a lot because likehalf this video is going to bedisclaimers Jewish history is anotherone of those histories that are hard totell start to finish because since we're

Talking about a people not a state or anempire everything is less solidlydelineated and more spread out and wecan't make any sweeping generalizationslike oh yes and this is the period whenthey were fighting these people for like

We asked men reasons and of course overhere there's a period when such and suchwas going on all throughout the land nowe can't we can't do that we can't saythose kinds of things Judaism as we'llsee isn't anywhere near that simple much

Like any story of a people with a let'ssay less than consistently habitablehomeland Jews the Roman II you name ittheir history gets pretty much zoomed into whatever larger power they're livingunder and when big Jewish specific

Events do happen they're usually prettylocalized you'll see my point as we goon so for real this time let's get to itso breezing past all that creation ofthe world stuff and avoiding theinevitable firestorm in the comments

Section we wind up in 1000 BC with KingDavid yes actually he has that David asthe one we're talking about according tothe Jewish tradition he set aboutuniting the 12 tribes of what laterbecame known as Judea and Israel yay

He's like the guy who combined peanutbutter and jellybut in king form but with 12 of themanyway after him his son Solomon buildsthe first big Temple in Jerusalem whichsurvives for a good 400 odd years and

The temple society in this period wasvery specifically organized thewere several key pillars that kepteverything running for example prophetsKing the High Court the priests and soon that all fit a specific purpose so

Say the prophets job was to preach therule of God and the Kings job was thento make sure that the prophets wordbecame the law of the land and this isgreat things go well fun times are hadand then in 586 the Babylonians pulling

A villa and wreck Jerusalem in thetemple and then they pull a patrick starand watch it being the jews andsomewhere else being mostly babylon thisgoes on for a brisk 70 years until theAchaemenid Persian Emperor Cyrus the

Great conquered Babylon and let the Jewsall go freeearning him the title of Messiah mostnotably the only non Jew ever to begranted that title that's play the gameright there

Then after that the Persians helped theJews build a second temple in 516because they're just that classy in lessclassy Mediterranean news the PersianEmpire was later joined by Alexanderthee gonna say six out of ten like not

Great great but pretty good you knowanyway he took over the Persian Empireand his successors had a really hot andcold relationship with the Jewsone minute they're compiling Greektranslations of the Bible the next

They're pillaging their town see it's agive and take well okay fine mostly takean example of the taking end of thisdate you're probably familiar withhappened in the 160s BC the Greeksillicit empire had been slowly but

Surely injecting Greek myths in to thelocal cultures and Judaism was having anidentity crisis as a result in an effortto provide in the proverbial vise ontraditional Judaism the Emperor and keyakissed the fourth outlawed non Hellenic

Judaism which didn't go over especiallywell in fact it went over terribly andit led to a revolt by the Maccabeesknown for the notoriously poor levelsupply and their subsequently fortuitouslamp longevity it's a Hanukkah and I'm

Talking about Hanukkah right now thesuccessful revolt against Greek dominionled to a semi fruitful century ofautonomous Jewish ruling basicallyIsrael which later ended in Romanoccupation this was more or less fine

Until it wasn't as Roman eastwardexpansion resulted an increasingly harshtreatment of the Jews which seems to besomething of a running theme at thispoint and immediately will continue tobe so for the next two thousand years in

70 AD they tried going to 4-2 on revoltsbut wound up going to 4-2 on gettingtheir temple destroyed instead so in theaftermath of the Roman siege and anon-negligible amount of murder thingsweren't really looking up as to be

Honest they generally tend not to inthose situations and it's about at thispoint that Jewish history enters itssecond phase which is generally calledthe Diaspora in other words Jews livinglargely outside of Israel many Jews who

Weren't slaughtered were sold intoslavery or otherwise relocated allaround the Roman Empire which partiallyexplains why there was such a broaddistribution of Jews across Europethroughout the Middle Ages and beyond

There's also a sizable migrationeastward but we'll talk about that in abit basically since Rome and thenleading up until the State of Israelbecame a thing in nineteenforty-eight the Jews have been in pretty

Much a perpetual worldwide exile that isrough not only because you'redisconnected from your homeland but thepeople whose lands you are living in areliable to treat you like parasites whichhistorically happened a lot since the

Great deep Templin Jews have beensystematically oppressed on the basisthat well this here is my land whyshould I share it with them why don'tthey just go back to where they're frombecause if they insist on staying with

Us then we have every right to push themto the periphery and treat them liketrash and this is exactly what happenedJewish ghettos were a thing long beforethe 20th century health Venice hasliterally had a place called Jew island

For centuries which speaking of go lookat Red's take on the Merchant of Venicefor more on that the quieter bouts ofJewish oppression generally looked a lotlike this Jews could go more or lesswherever so long as they lived in the

One corner of any given town were onlythe Jews live and because it was somecase of Europe it was largely Christianworld it generally had much fewer rightsthis was all well and good until everyso often the people in charge subsided

They really don't like the Jews and goabout giving him the boot the mostfamous and protracted instance of thiswould be the Reconquista at subsequentSpanish Inquisition which contrary towhat Monty Python what have you believe

You really should come to expect on thischannel by now but we're not there yetin fact we actually need to back up athousand years first for more contextyay contexts great kidthe second major locus of Jewish

Population after the first one fellthrough was Babylon and centuriesimmediately after the Babylonian exileand especially following the greatganking of the Second Temple a lot ofJews were kicking it and Babylon they

Did a lot of codifying in the MiddleAges and had moved towards the civilstructure not unlike the one in theolden days this situation good as it wasgenerally improved under Islamic rulewhere Jews were afforded positions of

Economic and political prestige andwe're free to practice their religionhowever they wanted for the most partthe Islamic empires were pretty goodabout tolerance so long as they werepeople of the book so to speak and not

Pagans this worked out well becauseJudaismunlike medieval Christian and he had noproblem being just one religion in themix this cultural blossoming reached atight and medieval Muslim Spain where

Jewish living experienced a rare andmuch deserved point of peace duringwhich culture and literature boomed thefamous figure that I'll talk about in alater podcast is my man Moses Maimonidesbut pronounced suffice to say

Is awesome this neighborly relationshipwith the Muslims worked out great untilthe moment that it well did see when theCrusades started up and the Christianshad their two century long days Voltspamfest they saw how well the Jews and

Muslims were getting along and sometimestreated the Jews as just as much anenemy as they did the Muslims with somevery slight exception synagogues wereburned people were slaughtered all thestuff you've come to expect at this

Point from the Crusades and from thegeneral depressing trend of Jewishhistory over all the worst of it cameduring the siege of Jerusalem in 1099when basically the entire city wasslaughtered and burned to the ground now

That one wasn't because they were Jewishbut murdering an entire municipality isyou know kind of a big deal followingthat Jews were subjects to routinemassacres by various European powers souh not fun that's what not fun is by

Contrast the more peaceful Europeansessentially saw Jews as little more thana convenient loophole by which toconduct money-lending since Christianityprohibited the lending of money withinterest with Judaism didn't there also

Is nothing stopping Christians fromrestricting Jews from owning propertyfarming or otherwise eating out anyother lifestyle plot money-lending thenwhenever they made too much money forthe king of liking he simply took it for

Himself and threw them out of thekingdom or made up some new law sayingthat Christians need to pay debts owedto Jews basically when Jews had createdenough money by way of interest thegovernment would exercise their powers

You scoop it all up and yes this iswhere the stereotype of the money-hungryjew originated which you may note isconsidering the context staggeringlyunfair to make it have it illegallypigeonholing jews into jobs that only

Involved handling money and then to makea corresponding habit of taking all oftheir money doesn't make Jews obsessedwith money it just makes the person whowrote all those laws and asked the lesspleasant Europeans in this case the

Spanish spent several shall we sayinquisitive centuries systematicallyoppressing and in some cases burningJews and Muslims because as we haveestablished on this channel at strategicpoints in history Christianity tends to

Up and decide that it hates sharing thesandbox with anybody I mean Islam to befair was approach to doing some of thesame things but they're not the oneseerily squashing Judaism right now sowe're not talking about it this all

Continued on in various forms in thefollowing centuries up until the modernday when after genocide numberone two three four at least five theJews finally has a state of Israel tocall their home again kind of that's

Done situation okay so now that we haveall of that I'm going to take a stepback from the history itself andattempts to explain why I personallythink it is that Judaism in the Hebrewpeople evolved the way they did this is

By no means the final word on the matterbecause as we'll see discussion anddebate is central to Judaism and thereare no easy answers to anything inhistory this is my opinion that followsit is informed by the testimony of a few

Religious experts but it's filtered bymy own views about cause and effect andhow history works in general so it's oneexplanation that I happen to quite likeI missed multiple other viable optionsbasically take everything I say in the

Second half of this video with onemetrics Carthage of salt because I verywell could be wrong and even still it'squite impossible to have the final wordon to anything in ten minutes but sinceI feel like it's important to at least

Try to put a lie to the what I'll do mybest to discuss it anyways and provideyou with a model that you might not haveconsidered before I don't want to changeyour mind I just want to get youthinking so with the history handled

Let's try to make sense of what Judaismreally needs and to do that I'm firstgoing to talk about the Biblespecifically my take on what it is andwhy I think that we even have it now theHebrew Bible which Christians call the

Old Testament and Jews call the Tanakhor the written Torah has three parts onethe Pentateuch to the NEB eeeem andfinally three the Quecha game when youtake the Hebrew letters together becauseremember Hebrew has no vowels and make

It an acronym you get quien K or Tanakhwhich is the Hebrew word for Bible whichfun fact is only called the Bible inEnglish because of the Greek word feeblyon which means book but it is switchablewith the other Greek word for book which

Is groobly on I'm not kiddingwe were this close to calling it thebooble if I had a time machine there isno question that that would be the firstthing on my list to fix okay so that'sthe short of what the Tanakh flash Bible

Is but why might it exist it seems likea weird and somewhat pointless questionto ask since most major Westernreligions have some kind of big book forthe write down all the rules but that'sactually the cool part here

Some scholars believe that for thelongest time the Hebrew people were anethnicity first and foremost a culturereally and the religion that we callJudaism was just one part of thatbroader culture as I explained earlier

The Hebrews had a full temple societywith an ethnic identity and everythingbut that all fell down during thedestruction of the first temple in 586BC by the Babylonians and then insultwas added to injury in 70 AD by the

Romans since the world order that hadbeen keeping the Hebrews going formillennia had briefly gone poof and therabbi's sort of knew that they needed areplacement in case it happened againwhich spoiler alert it did they got to

Work codifying generations of cultureinto one book before all thatinfrastructure and tradition abruptlymetamorphosed into jam this to me is onereason why we have the Tanakh broadlyspeaking it's a preservation of

Centuries of cultural identity thatotherwise might have been completelylost it's like the Hebrews wrote theirown ethnography and then used it as areligious Creed and given just this onebook one book is tasked with keeping all

Of Hebrew society together andfunctioning I would say it's been doinga damn good jobalready now we have surveyed 100theologists top 5 answers on the boardand the question is considering the

Possibility that the Bible exists as asubstitute for a traditional culturalorder how might we best treat theliterary content of the Bible itself andthe survey says allegory um yes that'sright so most grab Oz you'll talk to

Will tell you that the Bible works bestas a loose allegory and I mean thinkingabout it if the goal in codifyinggenerations of tradition is to preservea social order a detailed account of themovements behind the creation of the

Universe isn't the most important thingto include unless it's there to informhow people should be living theirday-to-day lives for instance if you aska Christian about the Garden of Edenstory they'll most likely tell you it's

About sin but then if you ask a Jewthey'll most likely tell you that it'sabout coping with exile a theme that alot of Jews throughout history probablyidentified pretty strongly withespecially the ones who lived right

After the temple got ganked you knowalso if you ask a Christian about theBible itself they're liable to tell youthat it's more or less written in onevoice so to speak most Jews however willtell you that the Bible demonstrates

Several different voices also if youlook at the specific details of thecreation story itself God isn't justmaking things he's going step by step tocreate a harmonic order to the worldseparating light from dark land from

Water ground from sky day from night butwhy is order so important why createthat first well if you ask me if you'repart of a recently D templed communityin search of a way to start againcreating order should probably be pretty

High on your list the very beginning ofthe Torah is all about starting freshand if you ask me that's not an accidentI believe that like all great storiesthe Bible was created to serve aspecific purpose and really say

Something and I think that purpose ofproviding life guidance is best servedwhen it's read allegorically now sidenote with respect to my claim in myprevious video about ancient Egypt thatthe historical evidence for Exodus

Doesn't really hold up this allegoricalapproach solves a lot of the problemsthat arise from that – do I think thateverything happened exactthe Bible describes no of course not butthere are plenty of ways in which a

Smaller population that perhaps adifferent point in time could have gonethrough the rough motions of Exoduswhich then later inspired what becamethe story we know some people say if theHyksos other people say other things I

Don't claim fact either way and that'swhy I think reading it as an allegory isimportant that way what matters mostisn't what actually did or didn't happenit's about how you interpret it inrelation to living a good and just life

And what that story means to you Iobviously don't have any way of knowingwhat Exodus really meant to the earlyJews but I do think that the story wascrafted the way it was and included inthe Bible for a specific reason

Regardless of its factual groundingExodus has a deep emotional relevance tothe Jewish people and I think it's bestto treat it more as a story than ahistory to respect thatagain that's my opinion but I do hope

You consider it so the Torah has thewritten part but it also has oral partsand they're called the Talmud and theMidrash first there's the Talmud whichis the authoritative source for Jewishlaw the Talmud is where you find all the

Rules most of which come from theMishnah a law code written down in 200AD it's in the centuries following theRoman conflicts that a lot of Talmudiclaw gets codified because remember booksare the next best thing to a functioning

Temple society and the Jewish peoplewere at this point rapidly running outof temples so it makes sense to me thatthere was some kind of added vigor tothe codification efforts post Rome therest of the Talmud comes from the Gemara

Which is commentary on the Mishnah andspeaking of commentary the second bigcomponent of the oral torah is theMidrash which is commentary and analysison the Tanakh in both legal andnon-legal contexts it's a lot of

Commentary I know but that emphasis onactive participation in the text lastsall the way through the modern day whereJews of all walks of life activelydiscuss and debate the meaning of theTorah you might remember in the

Christianity video I briefly touched onhow debating the meaning of the Torah issurprisingly central to Judaism incontrast to the word is final attitudefound in some other religions that's alot of terms I know I know it's a lot to

Take in but what matters most is thatyou have an appreciation for how damncomplexJudaism is if Christianity can be moreor less described as faith in JesusJudaism can be described as law and law

Is complicated so Judaismand in case you haven't noticed from metalking about this for the past what 20minutes laws are damn important I meanwhat did Moses receive from God when hewas way up there on the mountain

Rules laws Judaism at the mostfundamental level is about laws and howto livethat's why nowadays you find what mightseem like a surprising number of veryculturally devout Jews who follow all of

The traditions but don't believe for asecond that there's a God too many Jewsthe tradition and the law is far moreimportant than the faith for almost anyother modern religion that sounds like abrain melting contradiction but half of

American Jews have doubts about Godcompared to 10 to 15 percent for otherreligious groups in America this is partof why I adamantly believe that Judaismis very much an ethnic identity firstand a religious one second if religion

Plain and simple was the only thinggoing on here I'd see no explanation forthis whatsoever bottom line here is thatI have zero chance of saying all thestuff that I would like to in this videoso I will take it as a big win if I've

At least conveyed how tricky to fullyunderstand and uniquely unusual this allis so yeah Jewish history is hard tochronicle because it's so much more ahistory of a people than of a state likeRome or even of multiple states in the

Case of Christianity or Islam hopefullynow you see why the stories of Exodus inGenesis these stories of exile end ofoppression starting new after a crisisagain and again for centuries and simplylooking to lead fulfilling lawful lives

Are so central to not just Jewish faithbut Jewish heritage you know now that Ithink about it I wonder if the answer toall of this was written on that thirdtablet these 15 well crapand finally as an ending piece for this

Video there's a joke that I quite enjoytelling so there are four rabbis thereis one whose name will say is Jacobbecause sure why not whatever and theynever free their names their names don'tmatter they're getting into an argument

Over the meaning of a passage in in theBible and Jacob says that he thinks itmeans this but as three other friendssay now lo come on don't be silly itmeans this so Jacob goes up to you knowmountaintop or whatever he says Oh God

If I am correct about you know your wordplease send me a sign and then you knowa couple minutes later some storm cloudsgather and rain a little bit and thenthey blow away the other rabbis saynothing yeah that's no sign yeah right

Like gods on your side on this issue andthen Jacob goes back to the mountainagain the next day and says Oh God I'mcorrect about your will in your wordplease send me a bigger sign and thenstorm clouds gather much much more

Furiously this time and then a lightningbolt strikes the ground right in frontof the three rabbis and they say no wedon't buy it so Jacobs losing hispatience here a little bit the very nextday he goes up to the top of the

Mountain and he says Oh God if I amcorrect and then a booming voice echoesout from the heavens he's right so theother three rabbis look over at Jacoband then they say okay so what now it'sthree against two

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