What is Random?

published on July 19, 2020

Hey Vsauce Michael here and Derek generate 78 that's so random or is it what does it mean to be random can anything really be random what's the most random thing ever today let's stop being random and become brandsmart if something is unpredictable

And contains no recognizable patterns we call it random so let's begin our hunt for the most random thing with a coin toss the Australian 50 cent coin is one of the largest coins currently in

Circulation coin flips and rolling dice are not intrinsically random they are only random because of our ignorance if we could know every initial condition the exact forces and properties that played for a particular flip or roll we

Could theoretically calculate the result before it even happened and sure enough researchers have built coin flipping robots that can precisely control a flip to get the result they want 100% of the time so here is our question is there

Anything you couldn't predict even if you knew everything a process determined by nothing and how can you be sure there aren't any patterns in what you are looking at maybe you just haven't looked for the right pattern yet or maybe you

Have already seen true randomness but didn't know it because you didn't look for long enough as if protected by a sort of camouflage a random process can and will occasionally produce patterns YouTube URLs are pretty much random a

Unique one is made for every uploaded video but sometimes like the proverbial monkeys typing away on typewriters YouTube generates a URL that contains by chance a word the official music video for 50 Cent's inda Club contains a

Synonym for bottom this video was assigned hello there are some Sexy's and a sauce you want to find out if a particular word has been randomly assigned to a video yet you can search for it by using

This string in Google the point is randomness is difficult to identify it is easier to be certain that something is not random than that it is but despite this elusiveness something interesting is going on right now

Increasingly we especially young people are calling clearly predictable things random like randomly running into your best friend at a popular restaurant or hilariously bizarre combinations of things that we call totally random

Because they are seemingly unrelated even though of course they were chosen not at random but in a very determined way because they are all unrelated those guys that showed up at the party last night you didn't know they weren't

Randos in a mathematical sense they knew about the party we're in the mood to go to a party and we're in the area pretty predictable actually this non statistical use of the word random annoys some people but it's not that far

Off from the original meaning of the word in the 1300s random meant running or at great speed later it would be used to describe things that had no definite purpose it wasn't until the 1800s that random took on a particular mathematical

Definition then in the 1970s mi t–'s Student Paper popularized the use of the word random to simply mean strange of course just because something is strange doesn't mean it has no discoverable cause why if we started

Calling so many predictable things random while many theories revolve around the amount of information and new people we are confronted with at an increasing rate now more than ever before perhaps it's just easier almost a

Bit of a relief to call things random so that we can move on to synthesize other information take a look at this dye now as you can see it rolls a five most of the time but not all the time over time a sequence of its results will contain

Less randomness but it is still random any face is possible and I have no guarantee beforehand of knowing which face will show up the outcomes I'm selecting from make the resulting sequence less full of randomness but the

Process is still random even though a dye and a coin are extremely sensitive to their initial conditions and over the course of normal use are quite unpredictable they do over time exhibit certain biases biases that make them a

Bit more predictable and a little less random than you might think first of all dice even precision dice are only quality controlled within a few micrometers you can check this out yourself make two stacks of ten or more

Similar dice now if you orient each die every which way you should pretty much get two equally sized stacks but if you arrange each stack along a shared axis so that every die faces the same way any regular imperfections caused by the

Manufacturing process may become visible but what about coins well some fantastic research has been done on what happens when they spin and flip for instance it has been found that the us nickel is just the right diameter and thickness to

Wind up landing not heads up or tails up when flipped but on its side about once every six thousand times its flipped but what about the fairness of flipping well if you flip a coin like this for statistical and physical reasons the

Side facing up before the flip begins doesn't actually have a 50% chance of being the result instead as researchers at Stanford have found it actually has a 51% chance in this case it was the other side though still pretty Randi if you

Want a coin flip to be as spare as possible you should just catch it in your hand don't allow it to hit the ground bounce tumble and spin that's because researchers have found that when a coin spins larger biases come into

Play the shape of its edge its center of gravity the heavier side tends to go down quite often in the case of some coins as often as 80% of the time it's been found that a 1 euro coin will spin and land heads

Up more often than not and a US penny will land tails up more often than not wins fun but like I said earlier theoretically if we knew everything about the initial conditions of a coin flip or a die roll we could calculate

Beforehand their outcome why don't we do that more often well it's extremely difficult insane amounts of precision would be required because the smallest difference between two initial conditions can be magnified over time

Leading to chaotic extremely difficult to predict results randomorg the service Derek and I used at the beginning of this video to generate a random number uses atmospheric noise it's extremely hard to predict but

Technically still a deterministic system all that noise came from somewhere and if we could just find out those initial conditions we could theoretically predict their outcomes if we want a system more random than that we will

Need to find one that is determined by nothing and for that let's look closer quantumly close quantum mechanics may have our answer it describes the properties of quantum Lee sighs things as probabilities just

Chances not because we don't know enough yet to be certain or predict but because but the idea is there's nothing there to predict there is no beforehand we could know whether or not a particular individual radioactive atom will decay

Or not or whatever the spin of an electron is is only knowable once we look there determined by a deep-seated randomness woven into the universe itself Einstein couldn't believe this he

Refused to accept as he said that God played dice with the universe but experiments with entangled particles have shown violations of Bell inequalities entangled particles are particles that exhibit similar

Properties even when separated by large distances now if they agree on those shared properties to have or are somehow determined beforehand to have them their behaviors should satisfy Bell's famous inequalities but experiments have found

That instead the likelihood of what a machine will see when measuring one particle determines how the other machine will measure the other particle it is here when we look that the chance is determined explanations for this are

Even weirder but what the results suggest is that the chance of seeing particular quantum qualities don't pre exist they happen when you look so if you are ever feeling boring or predictable just remember that you are

Made out of octillion of quantum probabilities dice that don't tumble in any analyzable way we could ever they are the most random thing God may play dice with the universe but they are

The best dice in the universe and as always thanks for watching but what does it all mean well true randomness doesn't mean anything I mean for us to have meaning we need

Structure predictability and that is what I'm exploring over on my channel veritasium Wow okay so let's go over there and take a look at what is not random veritasium let's go I'll see you guys over there it's gonna be awesome

Come with us and as always thanks for watching

Related Videos

hey guys techrax here coming at you guys with another giveaway this is gonna be an iPhone 5s two of these brand new phones not the one in this video guys this i...
hey guy there's a popular game in the app store called flappy bird right now and it's supposedly really annoying believe it or not I haven't played ...
hey guys tech Rex here so right here with me I have an Apple iPhone 5s this is the gold one I also have with me some liquid nitrogen yes this is the real deal a...
hey guys techrax here right here I have the iPhone 5s with me this is the champagne or the gold color I still can't really figure out if it's champagne ...
hey guys tear cracks here so this video really exciting video I have the new Samsung Galaxy s5 for you guys this is the long-awaited cellular devices releases i...
everyone techrax here in this video I've got the latest Samsung Galaxy s5 right here as well as the Apple iPhone 5s and we're going to be doing a simple...
everyone techrax here in this video guys have a really exciting device this is the Samsung Galaxy s5 charcoal black and I'm really liking I after seeing the...
everyone techrax here here with me off the Samsung Galaxy s5 this is a perfectly fine s5 it is cracked from the drop test that I had with also one minor neck as...
hey guys tetrax here so in this video I'm going to try and burn the newly released Samsung Galaxy s5 this is the shimmering white 16 gigabyte model and if y...
everyone techrax here so I got my burn Samsung Galaxy s5 and I wanted to see whether the heartbeat sensor would still work the heart monitor on your galaxy s5 a...
hey guys Tech Rex here so I'm really excited to bring you guys a giveaway for my channel but this time I'm actually teaming up with a buddy of mine your...
hey guys techrax here so in this video I'm going to be hopefully instructing you guys how to make your very own a tech sandwich slash burger slash meal so y...
hey guys techrax here so I've got a galaxy s5 here this is the copper gold hopefully you guys can see pretty well it is sunset so it's getting a little ...
hey guys techrax here so right here with me I have a professional deep fryer in here is already some canola or corn or whatever oil I don't know vegetable o...
hey guys techrax here so just trying to make this video short and quick i'm having recently i got five hundred thousand subscribers and yeah most of you guy...
hey guys texture so in this video I have a drop test on the latest LG g3 device now this is actually the gold-coloured LG g3 this has not been released in the U...
hey guys techrax here so in this video we'll teach you guys how to make your iPhone indestructible this is essentially a case that's been around for yea...
hey guys techrax here soon in this video we had a train run over the iPhone 5s so we actually did this in two different instances initially we had a Space Gray ...
hey guys tech cracks here so in this video we're going to be dropped testing the newly released Amazon fire phone this is exclusive for AT&T and I belie...
hey guys techrax here so right here with me I have the Amazon fire phone this is the one I dropped and you know I thought what better what else do I do with thi...