Tin – Periodic Table of Videos

published on July 13, 2020

Brady thought that tin was a really boring element but we've changed his mind showing him that it does more than it says on the tin what we can show you is how tin melts how you can join wires on the battlefield while you're being fired at by the enemy how you can stop

Things growing on the bottom of ships and also give you a few hints about a first-year chemistry course if you come here to the University tin is in group 14 the same group as carbon so it is below germanium and above LED it was

Really valuable in prehistoric times because it was found that when you mix it with copper you could make bronze and bronze melts at a lower temperature than copper so it's easier to make weapons and the weapons were harder tin is found

In a variety of minerals they're love sources of it in China in Malaysia and also in Cornwall in the West of England after the ore has been crushed and washed the tin oxide is dried and samples tested for quality and good

Stomp orchard Year with 140 pounds of tin from a ton of ore there are still many abandoned tin mines in Cornwall they're quite dangerous when you walk across the Moors there are open shafts which if you're not looking where you're

Going you can fall down eventually Cornwall do provide a third of all the tin required by this country we have been trying to look at tin beginning with the metal one of the interesting things about tin

Is that it melts are quite a low temperature so if you heat it up it melts around 230 degrees centigrade so even with a gas torch you can melt it quite easily in the glass test tube this low melting point is very useful for a

Whole series of applications particularly for so-called solder that is joining things electrically this is solder it is the metal which is used to make electrical connections in this case on a very old computer memory board now

To make joints like this requires precise tools and it's a bit boring but what we want to show you is how people joined wires together on the battlefield for example in the Second World War you've got to imagine you're on the

Battlefield people are shooting at you you need to put down the telephone wires so you can talk to the groups on either side of you and the last thing you want to do is to get out to soldiering iron and wait for it to heat up and so on I

Remembered that I had some self soldiering joints which I got when I was an army cadet when it was about 15 there's a copper tube with some solder inside and some material that burns so that you can light it like a match so

You take the two bits of electrical wire you want to join post one piece of wire in each end and then you light it the solder is inside I've had these 56 years and they weren't new when they got them so they probably come from the Second

World War they're probably surplus I thought they would work Neil was a bit dubious as usual I was right so Neal set fire to the red part which is some sort of igniting mixture and it

Flared up quite quickly and then you can see the whole tube gets very hot now of course you can't see the solder because that's inside there as it gets hot the solder melts and runs round the wires and then as it cools down it solidifies

Fixing the wires into the short piece of copper tube on one occasion we did it more than once you could see the solder coming out just on one side just to showed that the solder was in

There I persuaded Neil and our new assistant Connor who's joining our team to heat one of these pieces vertically so that when they sold the melt it will drop out the bottom just to show you that it got hot we put

The thermocouple which measures temperature into the top so you can see the temperature going up and you can see the solder running out so we were really quite excited then we

Thought tin is in the same group as carbon-carbon burns so perhaps tin will burn well in a bunsen we found some very nice finely powdered tin Neill started sprinkling the tin into the flame of the Bunsen burner and it was really

Beautiful you could see all sorts of swirling flames and when the tin went into the flame you got quite a bright coloured light now there's some argument whether it was violet or lilac and that there was a touch of green as well which

I think came off your spatula it was really much more beautiful than any of us had expected and then Neil had a really good idea he fed the powder into the air hole of the Bunsen burner the stream of gas then blew the powder up

Into the flame and that looked even better so we take two really good experiments demonstrations and so we felt really ready to go for a third now ten is very well-known of having two different forms

Of the metal one of them is shiny and looks just like any other metal the other one is meant to be a sort of brownish color and crumbles away this transition between the two happens at low temperature and I'd seen the

Terrific time-lapse video on YouTube where you can see a block of metallic tin gradually crumbling away as this so-called tin pest spreads across so we thought we will try the same but perhaps we were not quite so patient

so first of all I had the dice tin soldier and we tried dunking the soldier in liquid nitrogen he came out looking much the same but we

Hoped it had transformed inside so Neil thumped it with a hammer that was successful it shattered the bits but there was absolutely no evidence that the metal had changed it was just Neil's power that smashed it

So we then tried a different experiment melting the tin and pouring the molten tin the liquid tin into liquid nitrogen the thinking here was that if we froze the liquid quickly it would go into the unstable form directly without going

Through the metallic one so it was really quite spectacular when it went in there were great plumes of vapor vapor water vapor as the nitrogen evaporated and when we took it out it was a rather beautiful shape of long piece of tin

Where it was the shape of the test tube so it looked byte artistic but he didn't demonstrate what we wanted we thought perhaps we were being a bit impatient so we left it in liquid nitrogen overnight one a piece of string in case it

Crumbled away and sadly when we took it out the next day still hadn't transformed the ones we've been completely unsuccessful I think that when we did

We've done it at too low a temperature you probably need it a bit below freezing point of water so minus 10 minus 20 degrees centigrade and when it's really cold liquid nitrogen temperature the atoms don't have enough

Thermal energy to rearrange if we left it in liquid nitrogen for a couple of years perhaps something would happen so as well as bronze there's a very well-known alloy of tin computer originally it was tin and lead it's no

Tin with other metals is particularly famous in Malaysia you get many souvenirs and when I was in Malaysia I was given this plate made that pewter and the reason why people liked it is because you can melt it quite easily and

Make it into elaborate shapes like the pattern on this plate now we really haven't talked about the chemistry yet tin is in the same group as carbon so it has four electrons in the outer shell but unlike carbon it can either use two

Of these electrons or four of these electrons for bonding when it uses two electrons it forms say tin dichloride stannous chloride which is a salt rather like sodium chloride so it dissolves in water makes

A slightly cloudy mixture if you put too much in but it dissolves but it will not dissolve in organic solvents like cyclohexane on the other hand if you use four electrons you can make compounds like tin tetra iodide which is one of

The compounds our students make in the first year lab and we had two samples made by students and you can see the colors are a bit different because one made a pure sample than the other the two

Tetra iodide is like an organic compound if you put this one in water the tin iodine bonds react with the water so you get hydrogen iodide which you can't see and you get a precipitate of tin oxide which is white if you put it in an

Organic solvent it dissolves so you get a nice yellow solution I won't say any more or you might cheat when you're a student here tin oxides are important in screens on smart phones and similar things

Because this display consists of a material which is sandwiched between two electrodes and obviously the electrode through which you're looking has to be transparent and indium tin oxide that's a mixed oxide of indium and tin is

Trettel ectric lis conducting but is transparent so indium tin oxide is a key component of most smartphones and other displays so if you're watching this you're probably watching it through a thin film of indium tin oxide the final

Application of tin that I want to tell you about involves chips this is a wooden ship but it's the only one I could find when the ship is made obviously the bottom of the ship is absolutely clean but as it sails around

The Seas various marine organisms mussels barnacles and so on fix themselves to the bottom of the ship and start growing so eventually the bottom of the ship looks rather like my hair with covered in these marine organisms

And this greatly slows down the ship it doesn't go through the water so easily so for centuries people have tried different sorts of coating on the bottom of ships for so called antifouling to stop organisms growing on them a very

Successful method is involved using organo tin compounds usually derivatives of tributyl tin these are very effective in preventing growth on the bottom ship the problem is that the tin can leech dissolve off the bottom of the ship and

Particularly near ports because there are a lot of ships there and they spend quite a lot of the time there and when the tin comes out of course it stops the organisms the barnacles fixing onto rocks and all sorts of things so in

Recent years there's been quite a strong movement to stop using tin in antifouling paints and to use clever paint chemistry to make the bottom so smooth that nothing can stick to it there you go

And to think I thought a video about 10 would be boring as you probably know we've made videos about all the elements on the periodic table but like the one you just watch then we're redoing them making them bigger and better if you'd

Like to support us help us make those new videos like the people whose names you see on the screen at the moment you can back us on patreon go to patreoncom/scishow with them this video about the professor's tire collection

You haven't lived until you've seen a video about the professor's tire collection anyway there are links down in the video description thank you so much for watching and we'll be back soon

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