The Storm Of Metal: Battle of Okinawa | Battles Received And Misplaced | Timeline

published on July 2, 2020

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every battle is both a victory and a

defeat it depends which flag you find in

every theater of the Second World War

battles won and lost determine position

of territory of resources and of the

strength to go on fighting for some of

the battles it was the victory that most

influenced the future possible

for others

it was the defeat this is the story of

the battles won and lost

that decided the outcome of the greatest

conflict in history

some words transcend their origins as

humble clothes names even as the names

given to battles won and lost they are

carved into history as turning points

which influenced the course of the war

the fate of Nations the makeup of our

world these words are indestructible El

Alamein Okinawa

well Pearl Harbor was put together quite

late

the Japanese had to acquire more

materials from Southeast Asia following

an American embargo in July 1941 the

objective was to seize quickly key

points in Southeast Asia but in order to

do it they had to bypass the Philippines

Pearl Harbor was the key knock out the

fleet the battleships and they assumed

carriers located at Pearl Harbor so that

they would then be free at the same time

to invade Malaya

see Southeast Asia it was done in the

understanding that in the long term the

Americans had the capacity to build up

sufficient military power to create a

terrible threat to Japan but it was done

in the hope that Japan could achieve

sufficient success that the Americans

would feel it wasn't worthwhile going on

from carriers 370 kilometers out in the

Pacific the Japanese had launched

pre-dawn

the first waves fell on Pearl Harbor at

7:40 am in that first attack 40

torpedo bombers 49 high-level bombers 41

dive bombers and 43 fighters

swept around the west of the island of

Oahu to hook up into the great naval

base the natural harbour in the south of

the island the first attack lasted for

30 minutes we were thinking about the

Army Air Force they used to have

maneuvers on Sunday mornings

we said that they're kind of early this

morning then pretty still we saw a bomb

drop

part of a clear sky came the treacherous

Japanese attack on Hawaii

Oh world knows now how Japan assaulted

the American naval base without warning

without a declaration of war and while

her invoice were actually negotiating in

Washington in addition to Anchorage's

the first attack had targeted air bases

wheeler field he can field Kaneohe and a

WA grounding any possible opposition to

the second braid there were three

hundred and fifty four American aircraft

on the island of which 188 were

destroyed and 159 damaged seven escaped

unscathed

at 8:50 am the second wave hooked in

from the opposite side of the island and

pounded its targets for more than an

hour the force comprised 54 high-level

bombers and 78 dive bombers with fighter

support

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the defenders had organized their

anti-aircraft fire by this time and we

went up to our battle stations and fire

the planes coming over and it went on

for a couple hours

of the 29 Japanese aircraft lost in the

raid 20 were in the second wave there's

no question that it would have been

worthwhile for the Japanese to attempt

another attack and they should have been

going for the oil tanks and for the

dockyard facilities in order to reduce

the capacity of Pearl Harbor to be the

base in the Pacific from which the

Americans could then mount their further

attacks they did not have enough

screening vessels and have they not so

much launched a third strike had they

stayed in the area they probably would

have netted the enterprise which was

nearby so they had the forces there but

they were very worried about being so

far out lacking screening vessels that

may pull away bit too early

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94 warships were in the harbor 18 were

sunk or suffered serious damage

but of the five battle ships that were

sunk three were to return to service one

that did not and remains today as a

memorial to the date that will live in

infamy was the Arizona four out of every

five men aboard the Arizona were killed

1,100 out of the 2403 American

fatalities on that day one of the guys

were caught in fires and jumped over the

side some ground some of them burn to

death someone but

I was one of the lucky ones in that case

though

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as a mathematical statement Pearl Harbor

was a battle lost for the Americans

but the ports infrastructure was largely

intact and there were no carriers in

Pearl Harbor when the attack came in

the operation was a partial tactical

success with the caveat that the wrong

targets were attacked

it was a strategic failure of the worst

order and Yamamoto has comments that he

feared the sleeping giant had been

awakened I think was a correct one the

nature of that attack was the thing most

calculated to create in the United

States a collective will to respond in a

way that I don't think anything else

would have December 7 1941 a date which

will live in infamy

United States of America was suddenly

and deliberately attacked by naval and

air forces of the Empire of Japan

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on the 12th of August 1943 Hitler

ordered construction of a new defensive

line on the Eastern Front the east wall

but he forbade any thought of withdrawal

to the position so as autumn began to be

felt Axis forces stood as much as 300

kilometers ahead of the wall which was

itself well inside Russian territory on

August 26th the Red Army began its

autumn offensive by Christmas

when winter closed down fighting the

German front had been pushed back all

along its lengths and in the center as

much as 150 kilometers behind the east

wall the central front rokossovsky moved

beyond the battlefield of Kursk at the

same time Army Group south from Manstein

was coming under pressure from the 3rd

and 4th Ukrainian fronts

when Hitler visited for Manstein's

headquarters on the 27th he was called

on to decide whether to reinforce Army

Group south with formations from the

center or permitted withdrawal behind

the line of the Dnieper he couldn't

decide when he went on to visit font

Kruger at Group center HQ he was

persuaded not to reinforce von Manstein

fourth Ukrainian front told Buchan

liberated taganrog two days later and

momentum was all with the advancing

Russian forces on September 2nd central

front reached the Bryansk onatopp

railway completing their break-in to the

German line a week into September and

the Caucasus front moved on the Tarman

Peninsula on the 10th

they took my opal by amphibious assault

and on the fourteenth central front with

Voronezh front general Vatutin in

support began driving for kiev towns

were now being reclaimed on an almost

daily basis Bryansk on the 10th and when

Chernigov fell on the 21st

it's signaled that rokossovsky had

reached the Dnieper at the moment the

best news comes from the Russian front

where the Red Army has been scoring one

triumph after another beating back the

invaders smashing their defensive

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on the 22nd the Teutons front began to

cross the Dnieper general Vatutin

commanding the first Ukrainian army

drives on beyond the kneepad on a white

front

malinovski x' command crossing further

south on the 26th by which time Smolensk

and was Lavi had formed at the beginning

of October the Baltic fronts of

yeremenko and Popov joined the offensive

by now Manstein was back behind the east

wall but his forces were much reduced

and he would have trouble holding the

position the momentum did not relent and

at the beginning of November the Red

Army launched a major assault out of its

bridgehead over the NEPA at Leo Tesh on

November 6th Kiev fell to the Red Army

and when six days later G Tamiya fell

two fronts were able to combine in

establishing a bridgehead of 160 by 240

kilometers completely negating the

utility indeed the very idea of the east

wall the scale of the Soviet comeback is

without parallel in military history

the Allies poised for attack in the West

the Red Army blasts and batters the

German barbarians in the east

as campaigning stalled with winter the

German armies were still intact

and they were still holy on Russian soil

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but the Soviet forces had advanced to a

much stronger position from which to

launch first the spring and then the

epic summer offensive operation

Bagration when general Montgomery was

appointed to command the 8th army he

made one thing clear he would not go on

to the offensive until he had total

material superiority and he withstood

Churchill's and patience until he was

satisfied that the odds were right

and then he orchestrated the Second

Battle of El Alamein second Alamein is

very much a set piece battle Montgomery

emphasized that the troops shall be

trained in the tasks that they have been

to do so you had some battalion and

Brigade commanders building replicas of

the positions that they're going to

attack and training and rehearsing their

role for weeks and weeks and weeks

before general Montgomery in realizing

that a citizen army fights best when it

knows exactly what's going on and what

it is going to do so tonight the plan of

battle was known to everybody from

general to private soldier the battle

had in a sense begun as another battle

the one initiated by Rommel on the night

of the 30th of August on the ADEs Army's

position at Alam halfa

targeting the weak southern end of the

British line that ran about 65

kilometers from the sea to the guitarra

depression

there was some desperation in rama's

plant of the six supply ships on which

he had been defending for had been sunk

his success now depending in part on the

successful capture of British fuel dumps

during his advance for his armor would

be stranded within three days

blocked by well-prepared defensive

positions Rommel was forced back on his

start line by second Alamein the balance

of material and troops and logistics in

the Middle East had tipped this the

first major battle where the British

forces exceed those of the Germans in

all regards in terms of airpower in

terms of men in terms of any tank guns

in terms of medium tanks

Montgomery has assembled his forces and

he's masked them ready for this attack

to break through the life

on the night of the 23rd of October

900 guns open their throats

was underway for Devils I said they're

gonna thank cutters what's a thousand

pieces are our home stones north to

south from the coast to the Katara

Montgomery deployed a truly Commonwealth

force ninth Australian division at the

coast road the 51st Highland division

2nd New Zealand and first South African

then 4th Indian and further south 50th

and 44th divisions and Free French with

three armored divisions in support

second New Zealand was the first

advancing force to claim its first

objective it secured materia Ridge but

10th armored in support did not exploit

the chance to break out north of them

9th Australia was slowed passing through

a minefield with 1st armored hanging

behind them all this while Rommel was

away he had gone to Germany on sick

leave

on the 25th he returned to his command

and to find that along the line from the

British 13th Corps in the south to the

intended main break in in the north the

attackers had been checked and

progressed slow their resistance along

the alamin I was very strong the British

and Koloff forces were not able to break

through Montgomery's battle plan was

delayed and essentially it had to be

reset

rommel launched armor to recover ground

lost at materia and kidney ridges but

was beaten back montgomery concluded

from the progress of the battle but the

main german concentration was in the

north facing the troops that he had

charged with making the breakthrough he

responded by realigning the major thrust

this would now come south of the coastal

sector in a new plan

supercharged where its principal

opposition would be the Italian

formations ninth Australian was to

continue pressure on the coast road but

the main line of attack would now be

inland and westwards supercharged and

the breakthrough began in the middle of

the night of the 1st of November 2nd New

Zealand led the attack supported by 1st

Armored Division which took a heavy toll

of 15th Panzer which engaged it success

was consolidated on November 3rd when

4th Indian and the 51st were sent in

against kidney Hill

their breakthrough opened the road for

7th and 10th armored which raced through

into open country

I can't remember the one tank sitting

out in front burning one of ours

and a voice in my ear saying help help

me they operate on that tank had been on

the wireless when his tank was hit and

somebody was trapped in that tank the

wireless was still on God's sake help me

and one of our times put a shot through

the side of it in a voice stop when

first armored and the New Zealand

division joined the offensive the

Italian Aria television was almost

completely destroyed Rommel was on the

back foot all along the line South 13th

corps under general Horrocks over ran

the Italian formations facing it

and the entire axis line was now falling

back as Rommel began his withdrawal

along the coast

by escaping even if only to be pursued

all along the north african littoral

Rommel had avoided the total defeat for

which Montgomery hoped if there's a

criticism to be laid at this point in

time it's of the timidity of the Allied

follow up but we also have to remember

that a lot of Montgomery's units had

fought themselves to a near standstill

breaking through an L main that his

armored forces were starting to fill the

toll battle that particularly the

Australian division it had been hammered

in its fight to the north so the

capacity of Montcalm resources to chase

was quite limited in as well but by any

assessment Rommel had suffered a

decisive loss and the Allies for the

first time in the war could celebrate a

decisive victory after our main the

Germans essentially are on their way out

of North Africa dealing with North

Africa starts the eyes thinking about

their reentry into Western Europe and in

many ways it's the turning point in the

war for the Western forces not even the

beginning of the end but it is perhaps

the end of the beginning

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when the Wars of East and West were

joined by the Japanese attack on Pearl

Harbor the longest battle of the Second

World War was already over two years old

it was known as the Battle of the

Atlantic and it started as the war in

Europe began with the Atlantic remaining

a battlefield until the very last days

of the war it was the vital logistic

battle of the war whether it failed or

succeeded on either side really

determined the course of the war and how

well it was going profoundly influenced

what each side could be doing in other

campaigns there were periods in the

first years of the war the German u-boat

commanders dubbed them the happy times

when it seemed as though the Battle of

the Atlantic could decide the war and

decided in favor of the Axis powers

but the tide of battle turned in the

first half of 1943 after which it was

clear that the Allies had controlled the

basis of Britain's imperial power had

always been importing raw materials from

and exporting manufactured goods to her

colonies and dominions this had made the

United Kingdom more than usually

dependent on imports for survival and

those imports must ultimately join one

of the Atlantic sea lanes after the fall

of France German aircraft surface ships

and submarines were based along the

French Atlantic coast from the airfields

and ports of the French coast their

efforts to disrupt and destroy Britain's

vital maritime lifeline became the

Battle of the Atlantic Germany's

glamorous surface vessels such as the

Bismarck Graf Spee Scharnhorst and

Tirpitz took a toll but each was picked

off in turn by the Royal Navy

aircraft sank ships but not in numbers

that would have forced the British Isles

to its means the real threat was the

submarine the advantage the submarine

has as a commerce Raider I think was

paramount the submarines could attack

unseen were very difficult to detect

once detected good at evading and could

come and reattach the Germans also set

up a pretty sophisticated system for

working out where the targets were and

for concentrating the u-boats to do

massive takes lessons learned in the

First World War meant that from the

outset merchant ships traveled in

convoys Admiral Doughnuts commanding the

submarine fleet evolved a tactic to

counter the convoy system

which came to be called the Wolfpack it

worked

with the u-boats hunting in packs extra

vigilance by the convoys is essential to

their safety der Nets never had as many

submarines as he wanted but then the

Allies did not initially have as many

escorts as they wanted and for the first

years of the war there was a gap in the

air cover where convoys sailed beyond

the range of aircraft as the battle wore

on tactics changed new weapons were

developed which were much more effective

at destroying the u-boats it was a

constant battle of offense versus

defense and developing technology on

both sides fundamentally all these

things together with perhaps the most

important which was the provision of

long-range aircraft and air support to

the convoys which created as a totality

a system which was able to reduce the

u-boat threat the decisive month was May

1943 to the Germans this was black May

German submarine losses had risen

sharply in proportion to the number of

Allied ships being sunk in April 39

ships had been lost but at a cost to the

Germans of 15 u-boats an unsupportable

rate

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and then convoy ons five designated a

slow convoy sailed 43 merchant ships

were escorted by sixteen warships and in

the Atlantic the convoy came under

attack from a pack of u-boats variously

assessed at between thirty and forty

strong their attack went in on the night

of May 4th a Canadian Air Force Catalina

sank one u-boat an escort ship and 12 of

the merchantman

was sent to the bottom on the 5th the

escort group was reinforced on the night

of the 6th the pack attacked again and

for u-boats were sunk

no merchant men were lost it is

sometimes difficult to pinpoint the

turning point at which a drawn-out

battle was decided but here was one

convoy s c-130 a week later met similar

success 37 merchantman with an eighth

ship escort sailed into the danger zone

where they were picked up by u-boats on

may 19th that same day the convoy was

joined on station by escort beep one

three days later the convoy entered

British waters and escort group one

detached in that mid-atlantic Passage

the u-boat pack had come under constant

aircraft and surface vessel attack for

submarines were sunk without loss to the

convoy in the first three weeks of May

31 u-boats were sunk the total would

reach 41 by the end of the month under

Nets was forced to temporarily suspend

operations in the North Atlantic the

losses were prodigious 36,000 merchant

seamen the same number of Allied

soldiers not less than 30,000 German

submariners thousands of vessels

hundreds of aircraft

but no battle had a more vital bearing

on the war in youth the allies

prevailing the Atlantic allowed the

remainder of the war to be fought so by

enabling the logistics enabling the

North American industrial machine to

provide all the resources that were

needed to fight what was an industrial

war the Battle of the Atlantic was

central

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with the Soviet Union coming under

immense renewed pressure in the early

summer of 1942 as well over a hundred

axis divisions renewed their assault

Stalin demanded more of his allies

Stalin wanted tootle to open up a second

front but he just wasn't in a position

to do that at the time so Churchill

reason that a major raid could be a kind

of compromise if they could take a

significant port that would show the

Germans that they were vulnerable in

that area that would then force Hitler

to redistribute some of his forces down

to protect that part of Europe which

would in turn take some of the pressure

off the Red Army and importantly show

Stalin that Churchill was doing his part

that he was a willing partner and not

just sitting back while Russian lives

were being taken on mass the Allied

forces came up with the idea of a

cross-channel raid a raid by definition

means hit-and-run this was not to be an

attempt to gain a toehold let alone

launch an invasion they would it was

said gain useful intelligence about

German coastal defenses preparatory to

launching a full-scale invasion at a

later date there were also secondary

objectives and the RAF in particular

were eager to see this as an opportunity

to draw out the Luftwaffe to have a

dingdong battle and hopefully give them

a hard time at this time the the new

Spitfire mark 9 had just come out and so

they were confident that they'd be able

to give the Luftwaffe a run for their

money producers of British aircraft have

already proved that they tell are the

best planes in the world each new

Spitfire bears witness to the great

contribution of British design and

workmanship

the objective selected was dead it was

in its planning known as operation

Rutter in its execution

it was called Operation Jubilee

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British leftenant general Bernard

Montgomery southeastern command provided

the troops for the operation and planned

a frontal assault without heavy

preliminary air bombardment under

pressure from the Canadian government to

ensure that Canadian troops saw action

the Canadian 2nd division was selected

for the main force they would assault

the town while British parachute units

attacked German batteries on the

headlands as a diversion that never

happened

bad weather caused delays Montgomery was

sent to North Africa to find the 8th

army and fame the code name was changed

to Jubilee and Lord Louis Mountbatten

took over planning the air bombardment

on Dieppe was reduced for fear of French

casualties destroyers were allocated to

bombard the shore

it was judged that battleships were too

vulnerable that close to the coast the

parachute operation on the flanks was

canceled an intelligence on which

planning was based was patchy and in

some cases laughable German gun

positions dug into the sides of the

headland cliffs were not spotted by air

reconnaissance and planners assessed the

beach gradient and its suitability for

tanks by scanning holiday snapshots the

Royal Marine Commando was to land in

fast gunboats after the main force had

gone in they were to destroy the Dieppe

dock installations and captured

documents in a safe in the port office

the break-in was to be the special

responsibility of a Marine who had been

a burglar in civilian life it has

recently been suggested as documents

have been Declassified that their real

objective was a new Enigma machine which

was defying British crypt analysts

the naval intelligence officer planning

that part of the raid was Ian Fleming

later to find fame as the author of the

James Bond novels now is this true well

we certainly know that in Fleming was

there at Dieppe it was his only battle

experience from World War two so that is

certainly true we certainly know that it

was a goal of the Dieppe raid to gather

intelligence so that certainly fits so

it's very possible

the Germans alerted by French double

agents that the British were targeting

Dieppe were on high alert

it began with the Navy taking the army

across the Conn channel in that dim

light just before dawn Navy army and RAF

combining in a bigger rate than any

attempted so far the raid began at oh

four fifty on the 19th of August with

the faint

remaining hope of surprise having been

lost

the landing craft of the eastern sector

had unexpectedly encountered a small

German convoy the resultant violent sea

fight alerted the German coastal

defences at Bern eval and tweet as the

assault force approached the coast of

France the Germans were at action

stations two commando units made

flanking landings number three on yellow

beach at the eastern end of the landing

zone and number four on orange beach at

the western end the main force hit three

beaches at and about the town and port

of Dieppe blue to the east green to the

west and the main force coming in on red

and white beaches

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number four commando successfully

stormed the viraja via battery and was

the only unit to capture all of its

objectives only 18 men from number three

commando got ashore in the right place

they managed to distract the burn eval

battery to good effect but were

eventually forced to withdraw as

superior enemy forces responded to their

landing the concentrated naval

bombardment preceded the main landing

but fire from destroyers was too light

to seriously affect the defenses a

concentrated RAF attack was equally

limited in effect and a smokescreen laid

across the headland had dubious value

indeed it was a factor contributing to

sending in reserves with fatal

consequences when the outcome of the

original assault was misinterpreted on

the east of the main landing a tweet

just 60 men out of 543 from the Royal

Regiment of Canada were taken off the

regiment had been pinned to the beach

and destroyed by coastal defence

batteries and a well sited machine gun

only a handful

of the South Saskatchewan regiment

reached their objectives with others

from this regiment landing in the wrong

place the Queen's Own Cameron

Highlanders of Canada despite being

landed late managed to push further

inland than any other troops but were

forced back when German reinforcements

rushed up half an hour after the flank

landings the main assault started the

Canadian Essex Scottish regiment and

Royal Hamilton light infantry supported

by 27 Churchill tanks of the 14th

Canadian army tank regiment most of the

tanks lost their tracks as they were

driven on to the shingle beach and

became crippled targets for German

anti-tank guns tanks that did cross the

shingle were stopped by concrete

roadblocks without tanks in support the

infantry was simply slaughtered by

crossfire from machine guns hidden in

the cliffs

laughs Azealia mall royale launched

straight at the center of the town were

pinned down under the cliffs a Royal

Marine Commando was ordered to learn to

support them a new task which caused

chaos when finally the mess was sorted

and the commando moved many of the

crafts were hit on the running those

that reached the shore were killed or

captured and their commanding officer

Lieutenant Colonel Tigger Phillips

seeing that the mission was futile stood

up and signaled to those following to

turn back he was killed a few moments

later at 10:20 a little over five hours

after the battle had begun five hours in

which everything possible went wrong the

withdrawal began

five hours after that the last Allied

troops had either been taken off killed

or taken prisoner sixty percent of the

invading force was killed wounded or

captured and they had lost weapons dingo

armored cars and Churchill tanks which

did not impress the Germans easy to

fight they said with a poor and obsolete

gun the Royal Air Force lost over a

hundred aircraft the Luftwaffe less than

fifty and the Royal Navy lost

thirty-three landing craft and a

destroyer casualties from the raid

included three thousand three hundred

and sixty-seven Canadians killed wounded

or taken prisoner and two hundred and

seventy five British commandos German

army casualties were five hundred and

ninety one the argument began at once

and has not relented was the Dieppe raid

of any value the principles of Special

Operations are that that it's got to be

fast it's got to be be stealthy and

you've got to achieve surprise and this

operation was simply too big to achieve

that it was too complex

it couldn't be a special operation in

that sense

they've certainly been through it but

they were already talking about next

time even before they got into hospital

it is of course easy to make the case

that lessons were learned and that those

lessons made a significant difference to

planning for the invasion of Europe on

d-day in 1944 it is rather more

difficult to make the case that the

lessons could not as easily have been

learned by better use of intelligence in

both of the meanings of that word

what in the Pacific has moved so fast

that there may be a danger of

underrating the enemy let no one

imagined that recent victories in the

Pacific indicator walkover

the Japanese continue to fight back with

the fanaticism quite unknown in the West

by early 1945 Japan is plainly beaten on

any objective measure the Japanese

Empire cannot win the war but the

Japanese culture military culture

especially will not allow the Japanese

to acknowledge that so

Japan has to be battered into submission

to do that the Allies the Americans

especially need to build air bases to

build air bases they need Islands and to

neaten if they need Islands they need

our Knauer

for the invasion of Okinawa 430 assault

transports have been loaded at 11 ports

from Seattle to Leyte on April 1st 1300

ships were massed offshore and the first

waves of the 155 thousand men of general

Simon Bolivar Buckner

10th army 3 marine and 4 army divisions

began going ashore

[Music]

they met very little opposition but

before the island fell American forces

involved would have numbered

300,000

[Music]

general Yuchi Jima commanding the

Japanese 32nd army had pulled his forces

back deciding not to contest the landing

but to meet the invasion south of the

Shuri line by the end of the first day

Buckner had 60,000 men ashore

general Oshima's strategy to defend

Okinawa is to sell it at the highest

human price so he doesn't waste lives

meeting the Americans on beaches for

example Japanese withdraw into the

interior and they basically say come get

us and that means the Americans have to

expend lives in order to kill Japanese

in order to gain victory and that the

Japanese strategy is about the most

simple and brutal you can imagine the

ships riding at anchor tell a different

story the invasion fleet was battered by

the Japanese weapon of last resort the

suicide bomb

[Music]

just minutes after 4 o'clock it hit the

superstructure

every new point

we overhead because we were effed

and after she reacted machinery forward

was started over the next few days the

Japanese launched kamikaze assaults on

the invasion fit which did not wholly

relent in all the weeks of fighting that

lay ahead here a Japanese B pilot have

ended his career with a direct hit on a

carrier of the Essex plus he's caused

casualties and damage onboard an enemy

ship and it's for just that purpose that

his own life was written off from the

first day of his training in his

guardians of the okinawa campaign the

suicides of 1465 kamikaze pilots had

accounted for 29 ships sunk 120 damaged

and 3048 sailors killed was a kamikaze

took his own we found his body with a

parachute come on Stan why he had a

publisher because he might have been

shut down and he could bail up what's

the answer today I would tell you this

and this is hard for me to tell you he

did his job when he did a world

on the 9th of April the American

invasion force opened its main offensive

third amphibious Corps general Giger

swung north as it happens the northern

thrust would meet the least resistance

and the north of the island would fall

first 24th Corps general Hodge landed

alongside gigas Corps and swung south

and here the fighting was hard against

an enemy that had sworn to defend every

inch to the death

advancing in parallel along opposite

coasts gigas core reached cape head o at

the northern tip of Okinawa in less than

two weeks though the Moto boot peninsula

was not secured for another week

by this time the the Americans have been

fighting the Japanese for three years

and they've been through some appalling

battles they know what the Japanese are

capable of but on Okinawa it gets even

worse and it's probably the worst battle

at the Americans fight in the Pacific

and I mean it was the worst audio can

imagine worse for the Japanese because

they killed themselves if they weren't

killed by the Americans but both sides

are suffering huge losses heroic dead of

a combined army and marine force marked

the grim battlefield of Okinawa where

one of the bloodiest engagements of the

war is being fought thousands of Yanks

have been wounded and other thousands

have sacrificed their lives to drive a

fanatical poll from this vital base the

doorstep to Japan itself in the south it

was a different story the Americans came

up against the will planned

fortifications of the Shuri line

and did not breach it and take the

islands capital Naha until May 27th

shuri castle key to the defensive line

fell on May 29th with Japanese defenders

now falling back for a last stand on the

southern tip of the island the fight to

the last spirit of the Japanese soldier

was nowhere more apparent than in the

fighting for haki now and it's estimated

that out of a hundred and eight thousand

Japs on the island 101,000 had to be

wiped out before victory was achieved

most of them were blasted out one by one

on June the 17th Japanese morale

collapsed the Japanese started to

surrender in numbers

[Music]

to the surprise of the Americans who had

not known at elsewhere in the Pacific on

June 22nd general oshi Jima committed

suicide and you can see that they've

finally decided that this was no use it

takes most of the battle before that

occurs and that's a sign of just how

tough it's going to be to defeat the

Japanese casualty lists what

catastrophic Japanese casualties

exceeded 110,000 America's 40,000 in

battle and nearly 10,000 more to

kamikaze okay now is not where the

Pacific War finishes because the

Americans and the British and that the

entire Western Allies know that they've

got to defeat the Japanese home islands

so one of the most important

consequences of our can our is that it

feeds into the American planning for

what is proposed to be the invasion of

Japan and it tells the Americans that

they'll not only kill lots and lots of

Japanese troops and civilians but

they'll lose perhaps a million troops of

their own that figure weighed heavily in

the debate that would resolve the next

phase of the war the use of a new weapon

so in a sense rocking our shapes the

history of conflict in the second half

of the 20th century

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