The Return Of Charles II From Exile | Recreation Of Kings | Timeline

published on July 2, 2020


the Stewart's a bloody rain is an

evocation of the extraordinary error

when these four Stuart Kings lived

through turbulent times

Catholic versus Protestant

Parliament against King

the English Civil War Europe torn apart

by religious conflict the plague the

Great Fire of London and finally a

Catholic King fled his country and his


Charles a second finally came to the

throne after years in exile following

the execution of his father Charles the

first who had struggled to be the king

that everyone longed for the restoration

would bring unity and glamour back to

the country the people worn out by the

austerity of Cromwell in the

parliamentarian era and the ecstatically

welcomed the new king people always say

oh gosh Charles he was so relaxed just

interest in a luxurious life but there

was one part of him that was unforgiving

and that was his attitude towards those

who had been involved in the death of

his father I've always thought the key

to understanding child sex reign is he

spends 11 years just desperately wanting

to be king that once he becomes king he

just want to do anything in the reign of

charles ii you have the birth of modern

times there were people who were

literally rebuilding england and then

the fire in London which enabled London

to be rebuilt it must have been so

exciting by the time you got to about

1700 to look around and find yourself in

this spanking new city in this series

were examining the reins of the Stuart

Kings to the lives of the wind' family

here at grittier Castle in North Wales

the winds had flourished during the

reign of King James our first and his

son King Charles the first

Sir John when the patriarch of the

family had been knighted and honored

with a baronetcy

his son Sir Richard Wynne was a friend

of King Charles the first and had been

appointed First Gentleman of the

bedchamber as well as treasurer to the

new queen henrietta maria but now the

situation had reached an all-time low of

both the Stewart's and the wins



King Charles the first was executed on

the 30th of January 1649 the Royalists

had lost the civil war the reign of the

Stuart's appeared over the entire system

of monarchy appeared over in its place

was now the Commonwealth a new system of

government where England Scotland Wales

and Ireland were ruled over by Oliver

Cromwell the Lord Protector

the hero of the New Model Army is Oliver

Cromwell and he had a spectacular career

from the minute he gets into Parliament

as the poorest man to make it the

Parliament in 1640 he is a dynamo I mean

he's a man totally committed to godly

Reformation completely convinced of the

fact that God has called him to some

great cause and he just rises from being

a captain in 1642 and then becomes the

leftenant general and he headed the

cavalry for the new mobile army

eventually of course the head of the

whole army leading unparalleled ly

successful and brutal campaigns in

Ireland the Scotland

after the execution of Charles the first

his wife Henrietta Maria had to escape

and found refuge in the French Court his

son Charles attempted to muster forces

in France and the Netherlands they

became royal prey they were pursued out

of the country

Henry T Moriah fled in a ship from the

southwest to France under gun fire from

Parliament the future james ii as a

young boy managed to escape from science

in middlesex dressed as a girl and was

spirited away to the netherlands and

there was a little princess elizabeth

who sadly sort of faded away and died in

carisbrooke castle in the isle of wight

between 16 46 and 51 the future charles

ii indoors are really humiliating exile

the story is that nobody dared tell

Charles a second that his father had

been executed and they didn't know what

to do so one of the senior Cortes went

in to see Charles a second and instead

of saying your Royal Highness which

would have been his title as Prince

Bowden said your majesty meaning you are

now the king and Charles took a moment

to understand it but when he did it was

an absolute body blow

the wind family at guido castle were

deeply affected by the execution of

Charles the first

so Richard Winn had lost both his King

and his seat opponent as he'd been

expelled by the prides purge of 1648

orchestrated by Oliver Cromwell

Sir Richard was heartbroken he would

never recover and he died just a few

months after King Charles was beheaded

succeeding Sir Richard as the new head

of the wind family would be his younger

brother sir Owen Wynn Owen was a very

different character bookish endlessly

intrigued by the possibilities of


it wasn't easy for poor on Syria and

when he was the third son and he was the

more bookish one he wasn't the sort of

glamorous Cortez his brother Richard had

been and so he was given all the kind of

difficult jobs he had to look after the

estate for his brother his brother gave

him an allowance to do so and he was at

the brunt of it here during civil war he

and of course Lady Grace his wife so it

can't have been easy during the Civil

War having all of this going on being

twice sacked being seriously squeezed in

terms of finances sir Owen had to be

especially careful under this new

Commonwealth the Wynn family had been

close to the deposed Royal House of

Stuart and there was a very real threat

that the winner state could be seized by

force at any moment just like rulest

family's up and down the country

following the end of the English Civil

War and the battles that occurred across

Wales Scotland and Ireland known as the

war of the three kingdoms Oliver

Cromwell had firmly established his grip

on power

he'd been sworn in as law protector in

1653 and drastically altered the

cultural landscape of the country

theatre was outlawed celebration of

Christmas and Easter was banned for

quite lost 1650s Oliver Cromwell is

ruling England as Lord Protector

refusing to take the title of King but

very much like a king and his policy of

promoting religious liberty

you know does benefit a lot of people

including of course former Anglicans and

even Catholics have a much easier time

under Cromwell than they had under any

of the stewards if Cromwell had lived

beyond his 60th birthday the real

possibility that the the Stuart option

might have faded away

in 1658 Oliver Cromwell fell ill and

died and was succeeded by his son witcha

Cromwell but Richard lacked any real

authority because if the position of law

protects it could be inherited so how is

that any different from the monarchy a

power vacuum was developing and the

booth rebellion was one of several

attempts to fill it Sir George Booth was

a former member of parliament who

organized it uprising against Richard

Cromwell in 1659 joining him in his

efforts would be another form of

parliament Sir Thomas Middleton and

Middleton's son-in-law

Sir Richard win the younger son of Sir

Owen the booth herbarium had been

planned in the regions near quitea

Castle North Wales and the Northwest of

England the forces assembled were able

to take the important city of Chester

but although Cromwell's power was

undoubtedly failing and the Commonwealth

was weak buthe rebellion was still put

down booth himself managed to escape

capture dressed as a woman but Sir

Richard Winn was not quite so fortunate


when booths revolt happens in 1659 it is

Sir Thomas Middleton and Sir Richard

when they are rising North Wales at the

same time as George Booth is rising

Cheshire it was supposed to happen all

over Britain but the problem is these

were the only two areas that did rise so

the full weight of the New Model Army

under general Lambert were there waiting

for them and they didn't stand a chance

as you can imagine

Sir Richard win is is caught in the

fallout of that obviously he's one of

the casualties of being mopped up and

he's dragged after Connaughton castle

where he's a prisoner

I would have had you in the dungeon

mother I did not think to see you

my keeper permits me no less met the

colonel he's a villain is he not

I found him amenable he is Parliament's

creature courtesy will loosen a door

rather than spite Richard and a ready

purse is more persuasive still I think

he will see you released his expectation

was to be courted I'm in no mood for

wooing perhaps you were enjoying your

little game too much there was a time to

end this tyranny under which we live


if general monk could join but he did

not he waited to see how that I would

fall Parliament and the army are in

dispute our king may return and our

prayers rest upon that hope but some new

Lord Protector may rising Cromwell's

place we have weather this long darkness

a state and family intact but you do not

throw away your winter garb at the first

spot of spring snows may return as

quickly as they are banished you were of

no use to me here recall the habits of a

courting youth and practice them upon

the colonel my purse will do the rest

the failure of the booth abelian a

terrible blow to Sir Richard win the

younger and all voyeuristic Ross the

country even in its weakened state

Cromwell's Commonwealth has somehow hung

on but their disappointment wouldn't

last for long

across the English Channel King Charles

the first son and heir was patiently

waiting in exile within a year

he'd be summoned back to London and a

new Stuart King with the back on the



the booth pelion of 1659 had failed to

bring down the commonwealth but it

hadn't been totally in vain the actions

of Sir George Booth Sir Thomas Middleton

and Sir Richard when the younger had

inspired another key figure of the era

George Monck

governor of Scotland monk was a man of

floating allegiance at one point he

considered defending which had gone well

later he thought of joining booths

rebellion but now in 1660 he was

launching his own uprising he led his

army of loyal soldiers down from

Scotland to London and no one could stop

him he became the most powerful man in

the country but monk was not in the

mould of Oliver Cromwell there would be

no new Lord Protector he made overtures

to the Stuart family in exile they were

the only ones who could offer the

country the stability it's so

desperately needed general monk realized

that the mood in the country was fed up

with Cromwell fed up with the rule of

the major generals the army had stopped

being on the side of the revolution the

army was reverting to the king and once

that happened there was no hope of

keeping Richard Cromwell he didn't have

any of his father's but bullying

strengths he was a quieter man and

anyway there's something absurd if

you've given up the concept of monarchy

thinking that there should be a

hereditary protectorate even though the

great rising didn't happen and it was

put down nevertheless all eyes were on

it and at that moment George Monck makes

his move and he could have been king of

course and in fact the throne was

offered to him tentatively in that in

the way of him becoming the inheritor of

the protector ship but wisely he decided

no it's much better to be the kingmaker

than the king so he is the grand

choreographer who brings Charles back

what enables Charles to come back of

course Charles doesn't actually win back

a throne it's Parliament and the

Commonwealth that lose it they haven't

got somebody's just

seed Oliver Cromwell who has the

substance or the respect of both

Parliament and the army to take his


so it's really because of Oliver

Cromwell's death and the inability of

anyone following him to grab that power

that eventually the English resort to

default and think well we'll have a king

back then Charles had spent most of his

exile in the Dutch city of breda and on

the 4th of April 1660 he issued the

Declaration of Breda promising a general

pardon for crimes committed during the

Civil War

recognition of property rights religious

toleration and payment of army wage

arrears four days later the parliament

in London proclaimed Charles King at

once the young exile made preparations

in Europe to return home


charles ii and his advisors they were

convinced that if there were conditions

they were going to be very onerous and

they'll be probably close to what

Charles the first had turned down before

his trial execution but actually the

English department had turned around on

his head in just two months in early

sixty and sixty although he has promised

everything be settled by Parliament he

is returned unconditionally

I mean Parliament passed the declaration

that he has been King since that moment

the death of his father of royal memory

so they say come back unconditionally

but thank you for your promise that you

will accept any sacrament we make on the

most neuralgic terms charles landed at

Dover on May the 25th he made his way to

London which he reached four days later

he had deliberately timed it said he'd

we entered the city on his birthday he

was exactly thirty years old the people

of London were lining the streets the

crowds were so thick that it took seven

hours to cross the still familiar City

perhaps some of them had been there that

cold January morning more than a decade

earlier when the king's father had been

beheaded in Whitehall now they were

cheering the return of the Stuart's

charles ii had come home to claim his



so great and latitude and in Sumeria

spirit to holding the King's picture

aloft that was near a hanging matter but

weeks ago it must be all of London we

shall know of his coming from the crowd

they line the streets like this from

Dover to Whitehall in all the years of

Cromwell did you ever see such a thing

no nor can i remember when last we two

had an afternoon of leisure such as this

he will be a fine I'm sure it


despite the general pardon offered by

Charles in his declaration of Breda

not every crime was forgotten fifty

people were deliberately excluded from

Charles's acts of forgiveness nine men

who signed his father's death warrants

were executed the identity of the

executioner who actually carried out the

beheading of King Charles the first is

still a mystery to this day as for

Oliver Cromwell the man who userupp

Charles's father even after death he'll

be held accountable as for the judge who

oversaw Charles's trial John Bradshaw

and Henry Ireton

who'd signed the King's death warrant

the three of them were moved from their

graves and hung up for the clouds to

witness before they were all decapitated

and their heads placed on spikes

there was one part of him that was

unforgiving and that was his attitude

towards those who had been involved in

the death of his father and that's the

59 men who signed the death warrant and

another 20 or so who were either legal

officers in the court case or on the

scaffold at the execution and Charles's

hatred for them never ended the people

who most blames for his father's death

their heads were cut off and their

bodies thrown into a lime pit and the

head stuck on spikes but on the Palace

of Westminster I think he just adored

his father and couldn't believe that

these people could expect any sort of

sympathy at all and there's also an

underlying point to that if he had been

soft with them what would it have said

about him as a as a as a monarch so I

think that there was a cold part of

Charles a second and it was absolutely

focused on those who killed his father


life will change drastically with a

return of the king Puritan repression

was lifted almost at once a new age of

liberty and even debauchery took hold

and with a dazzling cultural rebirth

poetry in the arts of prosper theatres

reopened with women appearing on stage

for the first time the sciences

flourished as well with luminaries such

as Sir Isaac Newton and olive oil

expanding the horizons of human


I think there was an enormous mood of

optimism when Charles the second came

back but partly because he did this

clever thing he was prepared to tolerate

and off lost people who had supported

the Civil War therefore because it was a

genial person on some on some levels and

certainly politically very intelligent

he was able to create an atmosphere in

which political reconciliation could


Charles's I came to work with many

people who'd work with Cromwell as

possible he wants to see healing and

Sakhalin his former enemies were much

more likely to send him on his travels

again than his former friends he'd

rather disappoint his friends than his

enemies because his aim is not how to go

away again


Charles himself abhi the founder of the

Royal Observatory which you can see here

is painting from its earliest days he

had an interest in the burgeoning field

of Natural Sciences and he would grant a

charter to the Royal Society


sir Owen Wynn would not get to see much

of the restoration he died in the same

year as king charles ii was crowned the

period that sir Owen Wynn had lived

under so cautiously in the last years of

his life was now called

the interregnum sir Owen son Sir Richard

when the younger freshly released sump'n

Arvin Castle inherited the wind' estate

Sir Richard wins uncle had been such a

key figure in the court of Charles the

first there was no reason to believe

that the Wynn family would not prosper

once again now that the Stewart's were



king charles ii was finally on the

throne and he needed a queen during the

reign of King Charles the first there'd

be negotiations with the royal family of

Portugal for the hand of Catherine of

Braganza this arrangement had been put

on permanent hold

thanks to Oliver Cromwell but it was

brought back to life following the

restoration King Charles a second

married Catherine of Braganza

in 1662 and the nation of tea drinkers

was born Catherine brought over the

custom of tea drinking from Portugal and

it quickly became popular amongst the

aristocracy in the reign of King Charles

a second Sir Richard when the younger

would be a key part of this restored

royal court taking up the position of

Chamberlain – Charles's new queen a

delighted nation dubbed the new king the

merry monarch but just like his father

Charles and married a Catholic and the

religious difficulties it is so blighted

the past did not simply disappear

however there were far more pressing

problems just around the corner the

worst outbreak of plague since the Black

Death and the Great Fire of London

your fire was dying Lady Grace let me

sum in the mood I have brought it back

to life

it is quite all right I can manage a

fire sit

I thought I heard the foot-post not long

ago yet I know that cannot be i forbade

the London post from approaching our

gates and none would be so disrespectful

as to disobey my wishes do not blame the

poor man no I do not you commanded him

and he obeyed as he should I had not

heard from Richard and so very long

he lives then the existence of the

letter was all you needed to know that I

fear it is very bad this time

I remember the plague in 1625 I was

younger than you not long married old

Sir John kept carts of London cloth

outside for days at a time

happier as he was to see his finest

purchases ruined than risk plague within

our walls it must be destroyed it is one

letter has passed through what hands of

what parts of the country we know not

every moment it is in this house the

danger deepens

I will have it removed from you if I



in 1665 the Great Plague of London hit

the city

there had been large outbreaks

throughout the 17th century particularly

in 1625 and 1636 but nothing as bad as

this it would be the last major outbreak

of the disease to occur in England a

quarter of the population of the capital

died in little over a year plague had

been something that all live with

forever it's something that they were

pretty wised up to and there are

accounts of bolts of cloth for example

or being sent up from London which would

be kept outside the gates that would

have for up to two weeks

so the Carters would not be allowed into

the domain the great court they'd be

kept outside by the porter and they

would observe for two weeks they knew

that one thing was certain if you have

an infected the cargo that came into

someone like Twitter the hospital get it


king charles ii and the family escaped

to Salisbury and England's Parliament

relocated to Oxford by the spring of

1666 the outbreak had died down and it

was deemed safe for the Stewart's to

return to London but just as life was

returning to normal

yet another disaster unfold it


the Great Fire of London broke out on

the 2nd of September 1666 what began in

a pudding main bakery spread out of

control and burned for three days

straight the fires gutted the medieval

heart of the city and the ancient Sint

Paul's Cathedral was utterly destroyed

fears abounded that the fire was a

foreign plot and king charles ii worried

that the entire city might fall into

anarchy england was at war with another

lens at the time the dutch saw the fire

as a divine retribution for the actions

of the English Navy and Rear Admiral

Robert Holmes who'd set the town of West

cherishing the blaze in what became

known as hoses bonfire

the disasters that the Fowler Charles

the hammer blow of the plague the fire

the wars with the Dutch meanwhile the

people of England were predominantly in

favor of the Dutch so he was out of

kilter with the political feeling of his

of his Parliament for a lot of his reign

these were terrible things because the

mentality of the time was somehow that

the the monarch was responsible for life

for everyday life

king charles ii was facing battles on

all fronts

just like the Stewart Kings who'd come

before him his capital burned to the

ground the economy in the doldrums the

only reason why he gone to war in the

first place was to try to help the

economy the Dutch Republic was in the

midst of its golden age lucrative trade

routes across the globe

Charles's Lunger father James has

suggested they seize the lucrative

colonial possessions from the Dutch

disrupt their trading dominance Charles

agreed he was keen for popular war to

boost his standing the war was not a

success the Netherlands may have been a

smaller nation we had a far superior

Navy and much more money disasters such

as the Great Fire of London further

sapped England's ability to prosecute

the world


by 1667 the Dutch controlled much of the

waters around the South of England

they'd secured pivotal European

alliances and that tune they staged a

devastatingly bold naval assault dumped

the road on the Midway they attacked the

English fleet at anchor in the mouth of

the Thames many ships are destroyed and

it remains one of the greatest disasters

in the history of the Royal Navy

Charles crushed had to sue for peace


the Royal Oak burned the loyal London in

the Royal James to the flagship carried

off without a single shot fired in her

defense I thought the Dutch a much

lesser power than England we are the

more numerous but they are richer and

they have directed their wealth with far

greater wisdom since the last war

they've rebuilt their Navy and plane

made experts study of river navigation

and warfare and what have we done

beggared our Garrison's with masks and

courtly merriments I have no place there

can be done with London go not there

again the pride and Ponton luxury all

the jails of England hold no more

cunning a collection of thieves than

court they never leave off robbing his

majesty even his dogs a target for

pilfering it was thought the Dutch could

not even set how to flip this year it

will have to be peace or the kingdom

hold may be undone


the treaty ending the war was signed in

1667 in the town of Breda where Charles

had made his famous declaration that has

allowed him to return to the English

throne several years earlier

Charles was humiliated but it is at

least bring the war to an end and allow

London to be rebuilt

Charles encouraged the greatest

architects to come forward with radical

plans for the city had these been

realized London today would be a

completely different place but in the

end practicalities money meant most of

the city was rebuilt on the same plan as

before but the building's themselves

were much changed here the genius of the

Christopher Wren did have the

opportunity to shine and his designs

remain some of the most famous in the

London skyline

because there was a sense of a new

beginning but a new beginning not out of

total novelty but something that was old

all sorts of exciting things happened

during the restoration and then as it

unfolded the full reign of charles ii

the birth of the royal society figures

like boyle figures like Christopher Wren

clever people who were scientists who

were architects who were literally

rebuilding England and then the rather

good luck as it happened of the fire

which enabled London to be rebuilt and

gloriously rebuilt it must have been so

exciting to look around and find

yourself in this spanking new city with

so many absolutely mind-boggling ly

beautiful buildings all around him on

River Thames which was crammed with

ships commerce entertainment theaters it

really was blessed to be alive I think

in the reign of charles ii as king

charles arranged for his city to be


he was also building up the forces for

another battle with a dutch republic

that had so humiliated him in secret a

new alliance was forged with nuit xiv of

france together they take on the dutch

in 1670 king charles ii made a

monumental decision

he signed a secret agreement with the

French known as the Treaty of Dover

Charles had been humiliated by a loss to

the Dutch Republic three years earlier

he was determined to gain revenge by

turning forces with France to conquer

the Dutch but one of the provisos of the

pact was that Charles would convert to


Charles was playing with fire perhaps

the thing which he stored in the most

divided about how a child's second is

what an earth he was doing in the Treaty

of Dover when he told louis xiv that he

would become a catholic if Louie would

give him the money the money and the

troops to make good his claim now there

are plenty people think that he's being

too clever by half that he's simply

using this as a device they get Louie to

believe him and give him all the things

I've always been inclined to think that

Charles always yearns to become a

Catholic that for most of his reign he

can see that he will become it will be

very dangerous that he will cause a huge

amount of political reaction but there's

a point around then and when no he's

under such pressure from his Catholic

wife his Catholic mistress and there's

just a moment at which he thinks

everywhere in Europe where monarchy is

strong Catholicism is strong Catholics

have been people have been my most loyal

supporters it but for the Catholics I

would not escape after Battle of

Worcester it was the Catholics who risk

their lives to hide me get me out of the

country and they it's just possible that

he went through a moment when he thought

I wonder if I can get away with becoming

a careful


England was still fiercely divided by

religion a Catholic King would rip open

old wounds in March 16 72 Charles made

the first moves towards fulfilling part

of the secret deal with king louis xiv

of france by making the royal

declaration of indulgence it promised

religious toleration for all including

catholics and seemed to be a first step

towards some kind of reconciliation

between england and rome following the

great break of Henry the eighth's Wayne

you seek stained glass for the new

chapel I shall not ask how you came by

such intelligence lest you implicate the

walls and doors of my chamber I had

thought it an art lost in this country

there are men in Paris who preserved the

skill why not row the King has declared

indulgence on matters of religion and

Parliament I care not is his declaration

even legal I care not I have an image in

my mind mother the chapel shall not be

complete without it it is across a fine

cross I must have it it was working too

longer the day that took your father

Hill it is not yet a must

mother it is not that we shall consult

physicians I have the outward

applications hadn't proved unsuccessful

they now prescribed inward medicines and

what course do they predict I must have

that glass mother after the declaration

of indulgence things become obviously

much easier for not just Catholics but

but crypto Catholics we don't know

precisely where sirisha when the

youngest stood on this but we know that

he's the Chamberlain of Queen Catherine

of Braganza and we know that he's trying

to get a stained-glass cross the new

chapel he's building in 1673 – for if

you look at the chapel he would think it

was a Catholic chapel and surely


in April 16 72 just a month after the

Royal declaration of indulgence England

and France declared war on the

Netherlands it did not go according to

plan the money promised by France to

Charles was not enough to cover the

military expenses the king was forced to

record Parliament and it contained many

members who were fiercely opposed to the

royal declaration they deemed it far too

generous to Catholics and they now had

the King in a bind Parliament refused to

fund the war until the Declaration was

withdrawn Charles had to comply but

worse was to come for the King the

details of his secret pact with louis

xiv were leaked the public was furious

charles quickly realized that to defend

his own position he had to pull out of

their lines with france end the war with

the netherlands in early 1670 for the

Treaty of Westminster was signed which

brought peace between England and the

Netherlands the war had achieved

precisely nothing


fortunately the full details of what

he'd agreed who never did come out when

he clearly helps to build a climate of

anxiety in the 1670s about whether there

is a drift back towards Catholic

monarchy there were still a lot of

political tensions and the constant

question of if Charles couldn't produce

a legitimate heir with Catherine of

Braganza who was going to succeed and

then the realization that his brother

James Duke of York was a Roman Catholic

was it led to a flaring up of intense

anti-catholic feeling and part of that

was driven by a wish to make sure that

James could not become the future king

of England so all in all I think Charles

ii would have preferred a much quieter

time than he was handed


1674 also saw the death of Sir Richard

wind the younger he'd been a member of

parliament for a total of 20 years both

before and after the intervention

without any male heirs the winners state

passed to his daughter Mary

but his title of baronet would be given

to his cousin John Wynn the strength of

the wind family seemed to be dissipating

Charles a second have returned to

England and so many across the country

had such high hopes but his reign was

turning out to be a disappointment

just like the winds the Stewart's were

losing power despite having many

children with his numerous mistresses

King Charles had no legitimate heirs

with his wife Catherine of Braganza nor

would only be born in the remaining 11

years of his life the heir apparent

throughout was his younger brother James

many suspected that James was a Catholic

though right

in fact Charles a second himself

converted to the Catholic religion on

his deathbed

it became incredibly ill in February

1685 very very quickly and suddenly had

a massive seizure and then poor man he

was handed over to the combined

ignorance of the Royal physicians who

did not know what to do and they took a

view that the best thing they could do

was stimulate him and get his whole

energy pulsing through him I suppose so

they shaved off his hair and applied

white hot glass to his scalp

they put a sort of acid in his nostrils

they pumped him full of laxatives and

enemas and they gave him tonics of

ground-up man's skull and put poultices

of pigeon droppings on his feet and

although occasionally bizarrely he

seemed to be getting better the general

flow was towards death and one of his

mistresses louise de caraway took James

Duke of York the King's brother aside

and said look please don't tell anyone

I've said this but his one wish has

always been that he dies a Catholic the

evidence the Charles second version his

deathbed is in the end the testimony of

the tiny number of people who were

witnesses to it it's it is very widely

accepted that it was so the man who was

supposed to have it received into the

church while someone who had helped him

during his escape after Worcester in

1651 on a beam in that sense someone he

trusted for many years and for me at any

rate he is the logical outcome out of

the shadows James brings a man called

Father Huddleston who had helped Charles

survive during his six weeks on the run

after the Battle of Worcester and James

utters the immortal line of Saia

I bring you now a man who once saved

your life and now he'll save your soul

and Huddleston sits with the king and

takes him through the various processes

to bring him to Catholicism including

what I'd imagine was rather a long

confession by Charles and he dies there

following day having just reconnected

briefly with the six weeks in his life

of which he was most proud when

showing himself to be brave and



if anyone thought that the controversial

issue of religious tolerance had gone

away they were mistaken the reign of

james ii would bring with it another

crisis in england and another war

in the next episode of the Stewart's of

bloody rain we see how the committed

Catholic James ii ascends to the throne

of England succeeding his brother what

had seemed an impossibility decades

earlier was now a reality the religious

tensions across the British Isles

reached fever pitch and they would test

the lawyers of the wind' family at

quitea castle in their relationship with

the House of Stuart all across the

country plans were made to usurp the

Catholic King but the real danger lay

very close to home

James's own daughter Mary and her

husband the Protestant William of Orange

of the Dutch Republic were the greatest

threat of all this would spell the end

of the House of Stuart and the beginning

of the Glorious Revolution


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