The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs

by birtanpublished on September 20, 2020

Humans can survive in this universe as long as we have an energy source unfortunately the universe will die it will happen slowly over many billions of years but it will happen on a universal time scale stars like our Sun will be gone in no time luckily

There are places that will exist practically forever from a human perspective the corpses of dead stars white dwarfs they could be humanity's last home right before the death of the universe what are these strange things

And what happens when they finally die how long stars live varies drastically depending on how massive they are for example really massive stars burn hot and fast dying violently in supernovae a

Few million years after birth but they're the exception 97% of all stars will end their existence as white dwarfs there are two ways this can happen small stars so-called red dwarfs burn out over trillions of years until they eventually

Quietly turn into white dwarfs medium-sized stars like our Sun are more interesting imagine the Sun as a huge pressure cooker that fuses hydrogen into helium in its core through its gravity the fusion of elements releases extreme

Amounts of energy that pushes outwards and stabilizes the star keeping it in a delicate balance when the Sun is old the hydrogen in the core is exhausted and the Sun will begin to burn helium into heavier elements while doing so it will

Shed its outer layers when this process is over more than half of the sun's mass will be lost into space as a spectacular planetary nebula millions of kilometers across what remains will be its former core

A white dwarf is born a star corpse while its former self was about 100 times its diameter now it's only about as big as Earth but still with about half of its former mass this means it's extremely dense a teaspoon of white

Dwarf is about as massive as a car its surface gravity is over 100 thousand times higher than Earth if you tried to land on it you'd immediately be compressed into a steaming puddle life around a white dwarf is very unlikely

But possible most of them that exist now were former stars that well died which probably ruined any planets they once had but that's not all since they are so small the planet would need to orbit them about 75 times closer than Earth is

To the Sun to have liquid water this proximity has up-and-down sides for one it would tightly lock the planet giving it a permanent day and permanent night and the edges of these day and night

Zones life could be possible but white dwarfs have a very stable energy output so they might actually be safer to live around than many red dwarfs this is still speculation at this point but if we could find a white dwarf with the

Right conditions to settle around we could have a home for many billions of years but why do they shine so much longer than other star types white dwarfs are very very hot up to 40 times hotter than our Sun ranking among the

Hottest objects in the universe that they are not incredibly active all the heat inside of them is trapped and has nowhere to go only on its outer layer can it escape into space but space is mostly empty so heat can't be

Transferred by conduction the only way energy can escape is by radiation this is so inefficient that white dwarfs will take trillions of years to cool down which may make them humanity's last refuge they might be the last sources of

Light and energy in a dying universe according to some estimates white dwarfs might shine as long as 100 billion billion years ten billion times longer than the universe has existed so far into the future that no regular stars

Will shine any more galaxies will have evaporated and only then will the first white dwarf turn into the first black dwarf when this happens the last hope for life will die off black Dwarfs will be inactive spheres with no energy left

To give still massive enough to kill you if you get too close so cold that they'll be near the coldest possible temperature in the universe so dark that they are practically invisible the universe will enter its last stage heat

Death which will leave the universe unrecognizable an absolutely dark and cold graveyard with black holes and black dwarfs scattered over trillions of light-years we don't know for sure what will happen with black dwarfs in the end

If the proton one of the fundamental parts of atoms has a limited lifespan black Dwarfs will slowly evaporate over many trillions of years if the proton does not decay black dwarfs will probably turn into spheres of pure iron

Via quantum tunneling over a timespan so obscenely gigantic that calling it forever is okay these ions fares will then travel completely alone through a dark universe nothing new will happen anymore forever while this may sound

Kind of dark this is so far away that for our purposes today it might as well not happen at all it doesn't matter what happens in a billion trillion years right now we happen to exist at an excellent time able to be in or about a

Universe filled with endless stars and light and planet and enough time to visit them one day our music is finally available on Spotify in iTunes it's composed by our good friends at Epic mountain two guys

With a studio who make music for a living you can check them out here and follow them on Facebook and Twitter and if you like our videos please consider supporting us on patreon it really would

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