The End Of The Sino-Soviet Friendship | Mao’s Cold War | Timeline

published on June 30, 2020

[Music]

less than a decade after the guns have

gone silent over the Korean Peninsula a

new era of the Cold War begins this time

between the two greatest powers of the

Communist world China and the Soviet

Union

frustrated by an unequal relationship is

China's supreme leader Mao Zedong Mao's

ambition to put China on the world stage

would shape her transformation as a

nation but it would create an

irreparable rift with the Soviet Union

one that would break out into open war

for so long China's bitter rivalry with

the Soviet Union has been shrouded in

secrecy

now eyewitness accounts from PLA

soldiers reveal a conflict that has been

brewing since the beginning of the

sino-soviet alliance this is the untold

story of Mao's cold war with the Soviet

Union

[Music]

March 1969 on a tiny island in the

Ussuri River between China and the

Soviet Union war has broken out

nineteen-year-old Wang Jian Chi is about

to face an enemy once considered China's

closest ally by one inch senior Dorothy

euro junior I do ha quality care Italian

georgg la da la millennia there are

shoes and you do the cheese food are

they needed by Shinya

I am a Scientologist Chinchin given your

magician common room gentleman Ramona

when what you thought – Nadia feelings

hey sir

come on your jean de Malaga in the most

dramatic turn in status state relations

in the Cold War China and the Soviet

Union are at war adjourn bow Island the

quarrel one and a half million square

kilometers of land that Czarist Russia

took from China nearly a hundred years

ago and the current demarcation of the

sino-soviet border now the war zone gen

bao Highland in the Ussuri River it lies

within hundreds of metres of both

Chinese and Soviet military camps both

sides consider the island fairs as the

conflict quickly escalates China's top

leader takes action Party Chairman Mao

Zedong with the capital Beijing only a

day away from the war zone Mao fears

Soviet tanks will soon roll in across

China's flat plains he orders a surge of

soldiers to fight the superior Soviet

strike force

barely one month after his enlistment

Wang is sent to the front line on Jan

bow the making of the film holiday

season her caution dancer watch it

allows hundred thousand strong army

Joshua song imagine hi there to see till

the Duomo 19 pieces just always just be

one messy doctor he filled a cool

– inna with her the tenderest hand

pushing the bougie has the feet are huge

[Music]

[Applause]

the Chinese army scores a triumph with

the capture of a Soviet t60 to tank a

superior weapon that has never been in

Chinese hands

the prize would fuel mouths drive to

build a modern army enabling engineers

to design China's very own battle tanks

with in years but mouths thirst for

Soviet technology had its roots 20 years

earlier in 1949 when China and the

Soviet Union was still allies October

1949 the newly established People's

Republic of China looks to the Soviet

Union to help transform it into a world

power

in 1949 when pearcy was founded China

was extremely weak very poor and the

Soviet Union was in the much better

shape in terms of industrial development

economic development military capability

and political influence in the world

three months later in 1950 the Russian

leader signs a treaty of friendship

secretary-general Joseph Stalin the

terms of the treaty however would be

tilted against China's favor this plants

the seeds of mistrust almost all of the

Soviets loans under the treaty would be

for the purchase of Soviet arms

[Music]

in addition the treaty gives the Soviets

exclusive access to sins Young's and

Manchuria Sakana meas Mao finds China

caught in an unequal relationship

[Music]

so from the beginning of the

establishment of the PRC Stalin is

making the point that you're the junior

partner emphasized Junior and now is

immediately beginning to calculate the

potential repercussions of this and

there is he's conflicted there I mean on

the one hand yes I need what the Soviets

can provide and I genuinely admire

Stalin on the other hand you can't treat

us like this

we're China and we may have been down

but we're not going to be soon soon

after signing the sino-soviet treaty mao

finds a chance to gain his edge over

stalin later the same year in June 1950

war breaks out in Korea between the

Soviet back north and American backed

South unwilling to risk a direct

confrontation with the US

Stalin requests for Mao to intervene

Mao decides to play the situation to

China's advantage he demands that Stalin

provide military aid as well as air

cover for his troops he hopes this war

will be an equal partnership four months

later in 1950 Stalin agrees to send

military equipment to China

but he insists the China take the lead

in the fighting there no bother you guys

eat it out

sri effort to go to vintage here to this

do you become a light have a mother dear

part to goodness modulus further may

live are studied topic urgency

[Music]

Cheeta martyrdom JD – were truly done to

her make water

to study that I put it out – what

relationship and Italian oh yeah grando

by Iridessa choose a children was a more

glorious she wasn't she

with an uneasy compromise reached Mao

orders over 250,000 troops into Korea

Stalin deploys airplanes to China's

northeast to defend her coastal regions

but Stalin stops short he decides not to

send planes to Korea

Mao's outgunned ami faces the UN war

machine alone clearly the Chinese

leaders were disappointed by the Soviet

decision it was one of the arguments

that Mao expressed

later on with the Soviet leaders that

Moscow simply betrayed China as a

stalemate sets in over Korea now

pressure Stalin for a to develop China's

own military capabilities

Stalin agrees to send more ammunition

but holds off on the transfer of

military technology Stalin and Mao

rivalry it's a deadlock but events would

soon take an unexpected turn the 5th of

March 1953

China is embroiled in the Korean War

[Music]

but a shocking event turns the course of

the war Soviet leader Joseph Stalin dies

from a cerebral hemorrhage

the new Soviet leadership urges Mao to

end the Korean War

within months a ceasefire is called

[Music]

but the experience of the Korean War

casts a shadow over sino-soviet

relations the Soviets failure to deliver

many of its promises of military support

during the war convinces Mao that China

has to become self-sufficient

[Music]

later that year Mao unleashes a

five-year plan to increase China's

industrial output is determined to

transform China into a power no one not

even the Soviet Union can afford to

ignore now studying must come there was

no need for Mao to be fearful of the

Soviet Union and it sort of really

lifted the cover of many other factors

when Stalin was alive Mao couldn't

review his personal political ambitions

but now there is no you know reservation

or hesitation from how to compete for

particular influence in the socialist

world

when Stalin was alive Mao had to yield

to his reputation and authority

but now Mao sees the chance to dominate

Stalin successor premier Nikita

Khrushchev one year later in 1954

Khrushchev visits Beijing for the fifth

anniversary of the People's Republic of

China

he offers many gifts to the young nation

including loans that Mao is hungry for

khrushchev even agrees to return Soviet

bases in Port Arthur to China a major

sticking point of the sino-soviet

relations since 1950

sheesh you know mother don't care

facilities are for that Military College

operator and cinematographer for casuals

okay so sure kameyama who cinema

children Poker Tour money answer the

Argonaut esophageal shivan buco how you

anywhere joseph imagine year put on

tellus touch of each other to cover two

words also a llama – sir – commissioned

a philosophy two years later in 1956

Khrushchev does the unforgivable at the

Soviet Union's 20th Party Congress he

denounces Stalin's personality cult and

excesses Khrushchev's move is

unprecedented the rule of Stalin has

never been questioned not even by now

he reminds a lot of chalice leaders

including Mao Stalin was a god-like

political figure

even though Mao had a lot of in-home

peasant relationship with Stalin during

Mao's revolution

ma himself as we know became studying in

China

he enjoyed personality cult absolute

control and political power now in 1956

57 when Khrushchev was a star he was

wrong

ma could not accept them so mob began to

criticize Khrushchev call him

revisionist new Russian imperialist a

leader between the communist movement

to make matters worse Khrushchev puts

forward his concept of peaceful

coexistence with the West

he believes that capitalism will fall

apart from its own excesses but now

believes de-stalinization will bring

down the Communist world dragging China

down with it you are telling the Western

world that the communist system had

flaws before that you know in the cold

war between the west and the East there

was contention there was reverie for the

merits of political system these

transition met to the effect that the

weakens the social supports legitimacy

in the moral political sense of

superiority so MA was worried about that

within months Mao sends a veiled

challenge to Khrushchev he declares that

Stalin's serious mistake was not to

treat the Chinese as equals but he

maintains that Stalin without doubt was

a good Marxist

by implying that Khrushchev's

denunciations of Stalin were brash Mouse

utterly positions himself as

Khrushchev's superior

[Music]

but Mao's ambitions would soon result in

serious consequences for China

he begins drastic measures to overtake

the Soviet Union in what would

terrifyingly become known as the Great

Leap Forward

[Music]

in 1958 Mao unleashes the Great Leap

Forward an ambitious project to

transform China into a modern state

through rapid industrialization

[Music]

it's fueled by a drive to rid China of

its dependency on the Soviet Union

a Soviet Union that Mao thinks is

distancing itself too far from its

communist roots

[Music]

– Ally

Jerry Umbach didn't renew you know

function button water changing to three

inches which he got by talk to the Eli

by Neil I stood at that they don't talk

trend retire tacos

but with masses of Labor diverted to

steel production there aren't enough

people to farm the land with no food

severe famines spread across China over

the next three years

it is catastrophic

a combination of famine and overwork

killed 38 million people a death toll

unprecedented in history

the Great Leap Forward was not a

rational and decision-making was not

based on you know expertise

it was simply political decision and

very emotional soft decision-making

instead of claiming responsibility now

officially names the period the three

years of natural disasters and blames

the famine on unfair Soviet policies the

perception of the Soviet blame for the

famine still lives on today veteran Gao

Singh churn grew up during the Great

Leap Forward onions their entire table i

Karbala y'all more Wednesday till you

check what in the dungeon Beulah we shot

those Renea oh don't sell women talented

researchers rewarder Virginia so when

you quit unions know she was retard with

industry

when Khrushchev hears of the devastation

he openly challenges now to shop in

other side with the leaders this autumn

al was crazy it's completed unrealistic

completely you do to pin so you are

destroying your own society and into the

country so mall was very angry when he

came to know those kind of Soviet

perspective of his approach to to

communism

one year later in 1960 Mao bites back at

the romanian party congress in front of

the communist world Mao denounces

Khrushchev as a revisionist Khrushchev

retaliates by withdrawing all Soviet

experts and aid from China the

sino-soviet fallout is now in the open

two years later in 1962 the ideological

rift worsens a crisis in Cuba involving

the Soviets erupts the Soviets have been

secretly building nuclear missile bases

in Cuba the us responds with a naval

blockade of the island the crisis

quickly escalates throwing the world to

the brink of nuclear war

[Music]

in a rare gesture China offers full

support for the Soviet Union but for Mao

Khrushchev does the unthinkable he

reaches a compromise with US President

John F Kennedy and agrees to dismantle

missile bases in Cuba Syria to Gaza

Cooper thought originally you too much

the hadoo 2,000 units and a teacher

hired her to yard time to warm a yacht

oh what a medians on fire people eager

shamash angry journey well make well how

are some chicken tikka thought that and

we are solely to change her doggy Mao

condemns Khrushchev for what he terms

cowardice in the Caribbean Khrushchev

retaliates by severing all ties with

China he also condemned China's nuclear

arms program

the breakdown in sino-soviet alliance is

now complete

two years later in 1964 the sino-soviet

split takes an unexpected twist

Khrushchev's own protegees asked him

from power the new Supreme Leader of the

Soviet Union secretary-general Leonid

Brezhnev Mao sends a delegation to

Moscow in 1965 in the hope of reviving

the sino-soviet alliance but the Chinese

delegation get a rude shock at the

Soviet reception

Marino's East Africa of Abuja URL so

that you a new industry she shouts at

you good wallop

peruzzo two sequential panache you want

me to send cheese unity yeah

alright you Sam also don't concern

yourself with Hamid a very important

come to our cover I consider one reason

why Caruso fucked up yo Nemo queasy firm

also don't cut the Omaha Tom would you

hahaha when the incident reaches Mouse

ears he decides there can be no

reconciliation but all is not lost for

now he plans on turning this incident to

his favor using the excuse that the

Soviets are attempting to sow discord in

China Mao makes a deadly move

the year is 1966 using the excuse the

Soviets are attempting to sow discord in

China Mao unleashes the Cultural

Revolution it's a terrifying campaign to

purge his enemies at all levels of

society

Mao begins targeting the top ranks of

the Communist Party and the People's

Liberation Army he denounces his enemies

as Soviet revisionists veteran GAO Singh

Chen bears witness to the turmoil who do

in our Hall take a sort of tuna

Madonna being so that's all I'm telling

you Angie Simon talented you're gonna

plate it get it if you do what $24 20

nights on our table let's go gentlemen

para uh your pathology

the fervor of the Cultural Revolution

further escalates the sino-soviet

conflict

it brings all of China's misgivings over

it's unfair relationship with the

Soviets to crisis point

the long-standing offense one and a half

million square kilometers of land that

Tsarist Russia had taken from China in

the 19th century this territorial issue

becomes a nationalistic flashpoint

or intense the Cultural Revolution

became the more superheated the rhetoric

became about the century of humiliation

and while Taiwan was the number one

unredeemed issue right behind it was the

northern border and that was the Soviet

Union so you have the old friction with

Russia now being grafted on to the new

quite intense friction with the Soviet

Union dangerous overheating of that

relationship thousands of Chinese

besieged the Soviet embassy in Beijing

groups even gather along China's border

with the Soviet Union to shout insults

at Soviet guards the Cultural Revolution

convinces Soviet leader Brezhnev China

must be contained

Brezhnev deploys 1 million troops to the

country's shared borders China

retaliates by doing the same it is the

most dramatic turn in state to state

relations in the Cold War

professor Li Zhao been served in the

Army during the time he remembers the

sudden hostility

we had morning trails practice we use

the Americans as our shooting target we

paint a target as the Nixon you know big

nose with a blue eyes because we were

told Americans coming

we need to prepared war against America

all the sudden we don't know why we were

told Americans not coming but the

Russians well so where the change in the

shooting target you know not Nixon by

the Brezhnev Russians coming so we began

to prepare war against the Soviet Union

with increased patrols on both sides

conflicts break out these are the

archives Chinese officials release they

show Soviet troops harrassing Chinese

guards at the border

[Music]

[Music]

Chinese media also reports a Soviet tank

running over Chinese protesters

[Music]

Chinese fishermen are also Harris

[Music]

but historical records reveal both sides

committed offenses with tensions running

at an all-time high it will only take

one misstep for both sides to break out

into a full-scale war

[Music]

the second of March 1969 one of the most

tense points along the border is a small

island less than two and a half

kilometers long

Jen Bao island is situated in the Ussuri

River to the east of hey Long's young

province

it sits within hundreds of metres of

both Soviet and Chinese military camps

Western and Soviet scholars say that

under Mao explicit orders Chinese

soldiers ambushed Soviet border guards

here

the Soviets say over 60 of their

soldiers are killed but China's official

tone is that the Soviets opened fire

first fearing a full-scale war Mao sends

more soldiers to join Bao Wang Yun Chi

is one of thousands who receive Mao's

order you order – yeah say yeah ah ha

1 million air – legit honey – taller the

more attention

[Music]

they do show they were mistreated

vicious Asuma see ya

I paid yet a woman you went and saw at

essentia I think went oh that's a total

ban yeah Monsieur totally murder Susan

Cooley really nice awfully Pia Pia

Topeka Syngenta

one week later on the 15th of March 1969

the Soviet Union launches a full-scale

attack they bombard the island with

heavy artillery spearheading their land

assault is a devastating weapon the t-62

battle tank a weapon that has never been

in Chinese hands for the pla veterans it

was an impossible fight against the

overwhelming soviet war machine so don't

Punk rejuvenation

[Music]

put on negotiation don't ruin changing

[Music]

she's a woman putria change any shownu

vs zombie boo boo ha choonhwa tina to

the band I'm Jay okay so the cheap shit

hard area to depends on pooja poverty

Chile Indian Association Hall Pass royal

procession jungle crazy Hawaii is a

cannula you do without children to

support

Vittoria

[Music]

you the attention I'm a possible take

this water yeah

there sugar

but in a huge moral victory the Chinese

army managed to capture one Soviet t60

to tank they're ordered to protect it at

all cost

but the Soviets launched an all-out

attack to recapture their tank resulting

in devastating consequences

[Music]

barely two days after their first

offensive the Soviet Union launches

another attack

[Music]

their goal this time the sophisticated

t-62 tank that is now in Chinese hands

dowsing churn is tasked to protect

China's war prize at all costs

hidden jaundice

they don't pink wanna shock me you

should tell me you ha young daughter

Johnny oh yeah well meant I mean Melia

are you yeah she's in the wrong sugar

chunk alarm crucial mission

no more than a Jewish um I did not hang

to the tower

homicide paddy was often D :

dark chocolate imagine get it

Durga Tonya changing

[Music]

the Soviets fail to recapture the tank

but their missiles hit other targets

with devastating results more than 800

Chinese are killed as the Soviets

relentlessly bon barge earn bail for

months

their missiles even reach 20 kilometers

into China as the Soviets try to wrestle

gern Bao from Chinese control

the veteran Wang Yang Qi the front line

remains fraught with danger say AHA say

near City Hall day on haunting Dada

Tendo es ahora si sir Tatia tenant

unhappy mes for one many NTSA each other

sooner we offer to see me ashore

tomorrow

so you tomorrow

this thing of Tommy chamber your woman

ain't even funny

natural man soo Gina de Guatemala we can

deport yo shorty to merchants cousins

how one church in Tahoe Nintendo

treating shorty

[Music]

as stalemate sets in over gern BAU

island another flashpoint develops this

time on a part along the sino-soviet

border more than 6000 kilometers away at

the border zone of TL occur T belongs in

Jiang province August the 13th 1969

Chinese frontier troops patrol thiele

Kirti

a Soviet taskforce responds with deadly

force they kill the entire patrol and

occupy the Chinese border zone

the Soviets are further hardening their

attitude towards China reassure our

unity Surya – what the see she needs our

yoga

turn the bunny dark how hurt era would

start – without your culture vicious we

are certain he's our manager chime in

jingle as the border war stretches into

months Soviet leader Brezhnev considers

a drastic measure to end the Chinese

threat a nuclear strike

[Music]

the threat of nuclear war now hangs

heavily over China

the Soviets nuclear capability far

exceeds China's in Beijing Mao orders

the construction of an underground

bunker city against a nuclear fallout

professor Shen is a 19 year old Saudia

in the Army at the time he remembers the

tension in Beijing the mother tangent

fuckin whore – what dejection Watonga

what function potential money funding

maker in the Waikato tomorrow 2010 every

time g20 is a measure to the Treasury

ocean vitality doom

thousands of Chinese built a labyrinth

of bomb shelters stretching almost

entirely under the capital city

China's cold war with the Soviet Union

now reaches crisis point

[Music]

as the Soviets consider carrying out a

nuclear strike on China to end a border

war they receive a dire warning US

President Richard Nixon threatens

retaliation if the Soviets carry out a

nuclear attack

Nixon states that such an attack will be

a declaration of World War three

his hardline approach – is Moscow's

plans for a decisive strike against

China more importantly it changes the

game entirely

bringing the Cold War into a new era

so now the game change the game of the

Cold War changed from the two poles

bipolar system to a triangle system now

Nixon introduced new player China to the

Cold War so there was triangle three

poles China United States and the Soviet

Union

when the us threatens to retaliate

against a nuclear attack on China the

Soviet Union is forced to assess its

strategy the 11th of September 1969

Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin

meets his Chinese counterpart Chou Enlai

to defuse the conflict

with the frosty relations the two meet

only at Beijing Airport they agree to

begin border negotiations by the next

year hostilities cease along the

sino-soviet border due to the

negotiations

but it would take nearly 20 years before

both sides find a settlement to the

border issue on the 9th of September in

1976 Mao dies ending nearly 27 years of

his total rule over China a huge shift

in relations occurs inside and outside

China

[Music]

[Applause]

his legacy however is immortal don't

enjoy you ever see this a lot in Joshua

other than wishes for them please what

consolation actually impossible

Putin ingenuity their unity huge them

she's in her father's own so de barajas

not depending on this is someone in

someone into detention tons of summer

means would opinion since the beginning

of sino-soviet relations Mouse ambitions

for China set the Alliance on a

dangerous path

but from the ashes of a war-torn country

shamed by a century of humiliation Mao

was hugely influential in shaping a

fiercely patriotic nation and superpower

with the decline of communism worldwide

China is now redefining its role as a

leader on the world stage

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