The dying of Adolf Hitler | DW Documentary

published on July 2, 2020

On May 1, 1945, the battle for
Berlin had been raging for two weeks

The capital of the
Third Reich lay in ruins

While the Nazi leadership still refused
to sign an unconditional surrender,

Soviet troops continued to fight
their way towards the Fuehrer bunker

in a house-to-house
battle

Their ultimate goal was to capture
the leader of the Third Reich

Hitler was the symbol of the war and of
fascism, a trophy that everybody wanted

But where
was Hitler?

Soviet soldiers found 6 children's corpses
in the garden of the Reich Chancellery,

2 charred bodies, as well
as skull fragments and teeth

And what did these two young
women have to do with the search?

One was Elena Rzhevskaya,
a Red Army interpreter,

the other a German, Käthe Heusermann,
the assistant to Hitler's dentist

Both played a decisive role in
the identification of Hitler’s remains

The witness states: I clearly recognise the
gold teeth and the dentures I was shown

Stalin was immediately informed
about the remains and their identification

He now knew that
Hitler was dead

Yet: 7 weeks later, at the Potsdam
Conference, Stalin told his Western allies

that the dictator was in good
health and had probably defected

Why didn't Stalin
tell his Allies?

Probably because keeping
it a secret could prove useful

The story of Hitler's death shows
how suspicious Stalin was of the West

Stalin's lie about Hitler's death
was upheld for almost 50 years

All proof of Hitler’s death was kept under
wraps until the Soviet Union became history

Only then was
the truth finally told

Nothing can be hidden
Everything comes out in the end

For the Soviet Union, WW II began in June
1941 after a surprise invasion by Hitler

Within a few months, the
enemy was outside Moscow

Stalin ordered the mass
mobilisation of the population

The poorly equipped regiments
that marched across the Red Square

were sent directly
to the front

Elena was just 22 and the
mother of a 2-year-old son

But the Red Army needed interpreters
and Elena, who spoke German, volunteered

4 years later, she was part
of the Soviet unit in Berlin

that was trying to track
down Nazi leaders

Nobody knew where Hitler was There
were rumours of him lying dead or dying,

a victim of a brain haemorrhage
Or that he had taken his own life

But according to Soviet radio, Hitler was
alive and well and in hiding in the Alps

It was said that a double was fighting
in his place on the streets of Berlin,

and Nazi propaganda was
only waiting for his death

to present the Allies
with appropriate photos

Another rumour claimed that Hitler
was hiding in the ruins of the Reichstag

Capturing the Reichstag
was a historical moment

The red flag above the parliament building
symbolized victory over the Third Reich

It was our unit that led
the attack on the Reichstag

We were lucky, it was
a great honour for us

They stormed the Reichstag
thinking Hitler was hiding there

But really, nobody
knew where he was

But Hitler wasn't in the Reichstag
It had burned down in 1933

The Red Army front line headed to the
Chancellery, the former heart of Nazi power

It was exciting to imagine Hitler
could still be there We were on edge

But where was Hitler?
Was he alive or dead?

German radio announced
the death of the Führer,

who “fell in his heroic
battle against Bolshevism"

Shortly afterwards, German Chief of Staff,
Hans Krebs, went to Soviet Headquarters

He wanted to begin surrender negotiations
and told Marshall Georgy Zhukov

about
Hitler's death

So while bitter fighting
continued on the streets of Berlin,

the small Soviet advance unit with Elena,
the interpreter, reached the Chancellery

Close by was the bunker where Hitler had
possibly been hiding for several months

They found a chaotic scene: the ground ploughed
by shells, and corpses lying everywhere

They quickly recognised
one body: Joseph Goebbels

Then those of his wife
Magda and their 6 children

Hitler's body hadn't yet
been found, but the next day,

the news of his death made
the headlines worldwide

Except in the
Soviet Union:

Pravda, the official Communist Party
newspaper, and voice of the Kremlin, wrote

that the claim Hitler was dead
was a ruse to enable him to escape

Similarly, in Paris, L’Humanité
questioned the report

Meanwhile, in the
grounds of the Chancellery,

the search for Hitler’s body continued
among the rubble and corpses

One of them closely resembled the dictator,
especially because of the typical moustache

Excitement and restlessness
spread Experts were called in

But despite the resemblance and the
beard, it was clear that it was not Hitler

Nevertheless: the legend
of a double was born

All Soviet troops marching into Berlin
were ordered to keep an eye out for Hitler

But the real search was done in
secret and carried out by only 3 people:

Major Gorbushin, Major Bystrov
and their interpreter Elena

She was needed to help question
German soldiers and officers

The two officers were part of SMERSH, the
Soviet military intelligence during WW II

On May 4, I spoke to the
bunker's heating engineer

He had installed the ventilation
system in the rooms Hitler lived in

He saw the bodies of Hitler and Eva
Braun being taken out of the bunker

After questioning the
first German prisoners,

investigators were convinced that Hitler
had held out in the bunker until the end

And that he had taken his own life shortly
before the first Soviet troops arrived

It was also known that on the afternoon of
April 30, the day of his supposed suicide,

all the gasoline kept in the Chancellery
for emergencies had been used up

Had Hitler disappeared without a trace?
Or had he ordered his body to be burned?

Could his remains still be
found? And if so, where?

The bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun
were discovered completely by chance

In the garden of the Chancellery, a soldier
saw the tip of a boot in good condition

sticking out of a
hole in the ground

He decided to take it and
found two dead bodies

They didn't know if it was really Hitler
They were able to identify Goebbels

because less petrol had
been used to burn his corpse

But these remains
were burnt to a cinder

The corpses of the Goebbels family, several
officers and the still unidentified remains

SMERSH now had to identify around a
dozen bodies, charred to varying degrees

Vice admiral Hans-Erich Voss confessed he was
among the last to see Goebbels and Hitler alive

Identifying Goebbels wasn't a problem,
but was this really the corpse of Hitler?

The autopsy
proved inconclusive

The doctors could not
– unlike with Goebbels – say

with absolute certainty whether the
remains were really those of the dictator

The last hope
were his teeth

The upper jaw was well preserved The
lower jaw,too He still had fifteen teeth

On May 8, my superior officer, Major
Gorbushin, told me to go and see him

He gave me a burgundy
colored box and said:

"These are Hitler's teeth
You're responsible for them”

On May 8th, the guns fell silent as the
unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht

came into effect – people celebrated the end
of a war that claimed millions of victims

But Elena stayed away
from the victory celebrations

Instead, she carefully guarded
a box lined with red satin

It probably contained
Hitler's final remains

In Berlin-Karlshorst,
representatives of the Allies

and German Field Marshal General
Wilhelm Keitel met at Soviet headquarters

Overseen by Marshal Zhukov, they signed the
surrender document of the German Wehrmacht

on the night
of May 9th

The war in Europe
was now officially over

The next morning, Elena and the two officers
set off to track down Hitler's dentist

Maybe he could say for certain
if these were Hitler’s teeth

But they knew neither the
dentist’s name nor his address

Or even if he
was still alive

Finally they found out his name and that
he had left the city two weeks earlier

But they also learned that his
assistant had stayed in Berlin,

hoping for her soldier
husband to return from the front

A few hours later, Elena
met Käthe Heusermann

A young,
cheerful woman,

who for almost ten years, had assisted
at every one of Hitler's dentist visits

So the Führer's teeth
held no secrets for her

She became
the main witness

The teeth meant nothing if you could
not find the person to identify them

Questioning of
Käthe Heusermann

The witness states: I clearly recognise the
gold teeth and the dentures I was shown

They belong to Chancellor Hitler The witness
makes the same statement for Eva Braun

This testimony is very important Now it is
proven that the teeth truly belong to Hitler

We asked her to sketch Hitler's teeth,
without showing her the teeth we had found

Käthe hadn't forgotten about
Hitler's terrible dental health

Her sketch corresponded exactly to the jaw
found by the Soviets It removed all doubt

The burnt corpse found in a hole in
the Chancellery garden was Hitler’s

So Hitler was dead But how
would Stalin handle this information

For the Soviet leadership in
Berlin, it was clear Hitler was dead

And Stalin was
informed immediately

To not give Stalin an accurate report
on the subject was out of the question

Hitler was a symbol of
huge political importance,

like the taking of the Reichstag
and the conquest of Berlin

Stalin hardly emerged from the
Kremlin, but he had informers everywhere

Every day, new documents about Hitler's
death and the identification arrived

They were precise
and definite

After Käthe Heusermann's testimony, it was
clear Hitler was dead and Stalin knew it

However, a few days later, a Soviet general
arrived in Berlin to verify the facts

The general started questioning people again,
for the 1st time, Elena, the interpreter,

was warned she would be held responsible
in the case of a translation error

Everybody was given strict
instructions and intimidated

The general sent the trio to
find Käthe Heusermann again

She was told to pack for a week-long
absence Then they took her with them

Official report of the second
questioning of Käthe Heusermann

It says it started at 01:15 and ended at
06:00 The questions were always the same

They made her repeat what
she knew about Hitler's teeth

and after she'd said everything,
they asked the same question:

"so do you still say that the teeth and
dentures shown to you belong to Hitler?"

She said "Yes, I
can confirm that"

The document is only five pages long but
we know the interview lasted five hours,

so we can imagine how many times
they forced her to give the same answers

The mysterious general
didn't sign any official reports

After the second questioning,
which confirmed the first,

he left as suddenly
as he had arrived

The investigators were
certain Hitler was dead,

thanks to the formal identification
of his teeth by Käthe Heusermann

But this information remained top secret
and the Soviet high command in Berlin

officially continued the
search for Hitler, dead or alive

A medal was even promised to the
person who succeeded in capturing him

Although the SMERSH investigation
was undertaken in utmost secrecy,

rumours were circulating
outside the Soviet zone

which made their way
into the international media

Had the Russians found and
identified the Nazi leader's body?

Everyone waited for
Soviet confirmation

The Kremlin
remained silent

At the end of May 1945, Harry Hopkins,
an advisor to US President Harry Truman,

went to Moscow for a series
of talks with Stalin to prepare

the first post-war conference
between the Big Three

When Hopkins asked Stalin
about Hitler’s whereabouts,

Stalin replied he thought Hitler
was alive, had successfully escaped

and had maybe gone
to Japan in a submarine

It was the first official lie about
Hitler's death, told by Stalin himself

10 days later, Zhukov organised a
press conference for foreign journalists

They expected confirmation of the discovery
and identification of Hitler's remains

But to their surprise, Zhukov announced the
oppositethat Hitler had not been found,

he was certainly alive, and had managed
to flee , perhaps to Spain or Argentina

Zhukov's claim can only be explained
as follows He obeyed Stalin's orders

As he hadn't received orders to say
the bodies had been identified, he lied

Why didn’t Stalin
tell the Allies?

The answer is not simple
and has psychological reasons

Knowing something the others
don't know is always advantageous

Keeping a secret
can always be useful

The story of Hitler's death shows
how much Stalin distrusted the West

It was important to him not to give
them too much information or evidence

Maybe one day, it would be useful
for us to have left his allies in the dark

So the lie had been born
There was general consternation,

because nobody could imagine
that just a month after the joint victory,

the Soviets would lie to their
allies about such a subject

Why? And if so,
what was the aim?

It seemed
absurd

No, if Zhukov said Hitler
hadn't been found, it was true

In July, Stalin, Truman and Churchill met
in Potsdam for their first post-war summit

The talks were to determine the future of
Germany and large parts of Eastern Europe

Tensions between the Soviets and
the Western Allies were aggravated

by the Soviet claims on Eastern
Europe and the Soviet policies in the areas

occupied by
the Red Army

With so much at stake, the question
of Hitler's fate was rather secondary

A Truman advisor recalled later that
during dinner with the US president,

Stalin reaffirmed that: "Hitler is alive
and is either in Spain or Argentina"

In Potsdam, the leaders
also had to decide

which Nazi leaders would go on trial
in a few months’ time in Nuremberg

Stalin said again:
"Hitler is alive"

So he should have been at
the top of the list of war criminals

But oddly, nobody requested him
Not the Americans, nor the English

Not even
Stalin

Everything was kept secret in
case, one day, we could use it

That is how the
Soviet Union operated

It was all controlled by the
intelligence service which observed,

threatened and
spread fear everywhere

Stalin's decision to withhold information
that concerned all of the Allies

was the first step by the
Soviets towards the Cold War

For Elena, the time had
come to take off her uniform

and put on a nice
dress and elegant shoes

She posed for some souvenir
photos and paid a last visit to Käthe,

the main witness to Hitler's death,
who was still being held at Soviet HQ

The two young ladies got on well And
they both shared an important secret

Their parting exchange was very
friendly Käthe said, "I will soon be free

Then we can meet up in Berlin
and I'll take you to my hairdresser's"

But that never
happened

Meanwhile, the British and
the Americans continued to seek

the truth about Hitler’s
mysterious disappearance,

and they still counted
on Soviet cooperation

Here's a request from the British and the
Americans to Soviet leadership in Berlin

Our generals passed on the request to
foreign affairs minister Vyacheslav Molotov

and Stalin, asking
for instructions

What information were they authorised
to give and should they cooperate

with the British and the Americans to
clarify the details of Hitler's death

Archives hold a request from intelligence
chief Lavrenti Beria to Molotov

to pass on the
information to the Allies

But it seems the Kremlin
decided not to allow it

The lie went around the world
and kept the press on alert

People everywhere
reported having seen Hitler

Nazi sympathizers seized the opportunity
to spread the myth Hitler was still alive

and would return
to save the Reich

One of the rumours was
particularly annoying for the British:

The Soviets accused them
of helping Hitler escape;

and that they were hiding him somewhere
in the British occupied zone

to use him as a bargaining chip
against them at the appropriate time

In order to put an end to such accusations,
the British commissioned a young historian,

Hugh Trevor-Roper, to investigate
the question of Hitler's whereabouts

The Russians denied him their support
and any access to the Chancellery,

located in the
Soviet sector

But Trevor-Roper found several witnesses
in British and American prison camps,

who had experienced the last
moments in the Führer's bunker

The historian was soon certain that
Hitler had committed suicide on April 30

Shortly afterwards, his body
was burned by his bodyguards

But Trevor-Roper's report was based
solely on testimony from witnesses

What he lacked was evidence,
and most importantly, the body

That is why he was unable to put a
stop to the rumours that were becoming

more and
more colourful

At that time, the FBI received thousands
of reports from all over the world

about sightings of Hitler, which
were checked and categorised

In March 1953 the news spread like
wildfire around the world: Stalin was dead

The unscrupulous dictator, victor of
the Second World War, merciless tyrant,

glorified and hated ruler had died,
and nobody knew what would follow

the regime of terror he had maintained
for almost 30 years in the Soviet Union

Beria had the honourable task of
delivering the eulogy on Red Square

The head of Soviet State
Intelligence hoped to seize power

But soon afterwards he was arrested, put
on trial, sentenced to death and executed

KM-long shelves contained the carefully
documented secrets of the Stalin regime

8 years after
Hitler’s death,

the truth about his death remained
locked away in secret archives

Only a few remaining eye
witnesses knew the details

In 1955, Elena was finally free to say and
write that Hitler committed suicide

But nothing
more

Nothing about the investigation,
the identification of his remains

and even less
about Stalin's lies

Anyway, who would believe
her? Where was the proof?

Among the numerous versions
of Hitler's disappearance,

it was now the suicide theory that those in
power preferred But not just any suicide

The idea that Hitler poisoned himself
was much more interesting for propaganda

than if he shot
himself in the head

Suicide by shooting is
seen as an act of courage,

while taking poison is
a sign of cowardliness

The 1st lie, told by Stalin, was that Hitler
was alive and had succeeded in escaping

His successors opted for another
version, that Hitler had poisoned himself

That version was spread and
repeated until everyone had heard it

The Brezhnev era began in 1964
One year later, the Soviet leader decided

to commemorate the end of the war
by making Victory Day a public holiday

20 years had passed since
the end of the war In 1965,

Elena wrote about what had happened,
what the intelligence services had done

Elena was now a respected writer She was
obsessed by the lies about Hitler's death

She wanted to publicize what
she knew and dispel the myths

But to make it credible, it needed to be
based on the proof hidden in the archives

After multiple requests, she finally
gained access to some of the documents

As she was given little time
to carry out her research,

Elena frantically copied all
of the documents given to her

She filled five
large notebooks

She could not choose the documents
and didn't know what was in the archives

She had no
catalogue

She had to stay sitting in a chair, an
official gave her one dossier after another

The importance and interest
of the documents varied hugely

One day, she opened a dossier with a list
of trophies sent from Berlin to Moscow

Hitler's coat, a paper
shredder found in the bunker

and the names of Käthe Heusermann
and several other Germans

That's how my grandmother learned Käthe
had been sent to Moscow Like an object

It was a huge shock Elena was suddenly
transported 20 years into the past,

to the SMERSH
interrogation room in Berlin

She remembered Käthe
Heusermann, Hitler's dentist's assistant,

the main witness who had enabled
the identification of Hitler's remains

Elena got on well with
the cheerful young woman

Now she knew Käthe
had never been released

On the morning of June 29, 1945, at 06:00,
I was transported with 7 other prisoners

to a Berlin airfield and put
on a cargo plane to Moscow

On arrival, we were immediately
taken in a police van to Lubyanka prison

and put in solitary
confinement

My cell was very small, just 7 steps long
and water ran down the black-painted walls

She didn't know how long they would
keep her there Or what she was accused of

She did understand
why she was in prison

I spent six years in
solitary confinement

In August 1951, they charged me with
helping a bourgeois state prolong the war

by participating in
Hitler's dental healthcare

They said I should've killed him, by breaking
a bottle over his head during teatment

That way I would
have saved the world

After 6 years in a
secret KGB prison,

there followed an absurd indictment
and a sentence with no trial

A month earlier, Stalin’s
protegé Viktor Abakumov,

the former head of SMERSH
and minister for state security,

had fallen into disgrace and
was dismissed from office

In 1951, when
Abakumov was arrested,

it was discovered that a number of
Germans who witnessed Hitler's death,

were being held without
a warrant for their arrest

So a list was drawn up and sent
to Stalin for further instructions

He decided they
were to be sentenced

Everyone on the list was given a long
sentence for imaginary political crimes

That way, nobody could
speak about what they had seen

I was sentenced to 10 years in
a forced labour camp in Siberia,

with the 65 years solitary
already served taken into account

I signed

I was happy to go to a camp with fellow
sufferers and escape my stone tomb in Moscow

In December 1951, Käthe left
Moscow for Siberia in a cattle wagon

She was given her little
suitcase of summer dresses,

packed in Berlin 65 years previous
when she thought she'd be away for a week

The journey lasted 14 days and Käthe
recalled that when one of the prisoners died,

the guards threw the
body out into the snow

She wrote that she had to do
an extreme amount of labour

I couldn't keep up At the
time I weighed under 40 kilos

Because I did not work
enough, my food ration was cut

No breakfast, no food in
the evening, just at midday

If a fellow prisoner hadn’t helped me, I
would have certainly starved to death

Käthe Heusermann was sentenced because
she could testify that Hitler was dead

She was imprisoned in the Soviet
Union so that nobody would find out

those in power had
falsified historical facts

She suffered because
of her services to history

First a secret prisoner, then
sentenced for a made- up crime,

Käthe was first released after ten years
in 1955 Her situation changed completely

We arrived in Moscow on June 1st
and they took us around the city by bus

They showed us the
Kremlin, the university,

and the underground stations which
were each individually decorated,

with mosaics,
paintings and marble

Käthe returned to Germany in
an express train with sleeping cars,

white curtains
and lampshades

In the Soviet Union, tourists had to spend
all their rubles before leaving the country

The men often invested their little
money in Crimean champagne or vodka

from the dining car
and gave the rest as tips

For eight years, Käthe's family knew
nothing of what had become of her

Until a recently released prisoner said that
she was alive and in a prison camp in Siberia

Käthe’s husband, who
had returned from the front,

had had her declared
dead and remarried

But she immediately
adapted to her new existence

Surprisingly she said that chapter of my
life is over Now I'm starting a new life

I am not a woman with an absent
husband, am I? I have no idea who I am

What are you when you have been declared
dead? Dead? I don't know what to call that

That is
how it was

20 years after the end of WW II, Elena's
book was finally published in Moscow

But first it had to
pass two censors

The first was the normal one that every
book in the Soviet Union was subject to

The second check was
carried out by the KGB

It forbade her from saying she
had access to their secret archives

So from an historical point of view
the work was basically worthless

The author was not allowed to base her
writing on findings or concrete sources

She was also banned from mentioning
official lies or divulging state secrets

She would have to wait
another 25 years to do that

In 1991, the Soviet
Union collapsed

Outside the Lubyanka
building, the KGB headquarters,

the statue of Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder
of the KGB’s predecessor was removed

Was it now finally possible
to tell the whole story?

When I became director of
the State Archives in 1992,

there was a kind of
handover of power

My predecessor handed me a box
that contained parts of Hitler's skull

and documents on the
investigation into his death

It was only after the
fall of the Soviet Union

that we could launch what is
known as: The Archive Revolution

Millions of documents were declassified
so that researchers could access them

The findings, material evidence
as well as parts of Hitler's skull

had been kept in the state archives,
while the archives of the KGB, now the FSB,

had kept part of the witness reports,
including that of Käthe Heusermann,

as well as the main proof,
Hitler's teeth under lock and key

But where were the bodies? The
charred remains of Hitler and Eva Braun?

The remains were handed over to
the Chief of Staff of the third army,

stationed in
East Germany

Every time the army was
re-located they took them with them

They had to dig them up and bury
them in a new secret hiding place

In 1970, the then KGB chief Yuri
Andropov advised Leonid Brezhnev

to get rid of the charred remains that
had followed the third army for 25 years

The secret document about the
destruction of the Nazi leaders' remains

was discovered in the archives
in 1992 and the case was closed

47 years later, all the evidence
of Hitler's gunshot suicide

in his bunker on April 30,
1945, was finally made public

Nothing remains secret Everything comes
out in the end History teaches us that

Even the best- kept
secret comes out in the end

The governments that followed never felt it
necessary to explain themselves

In the 90s, Russian
leaders said:

OK, there were secrets, but it
was the work of the Soviet Union

They should have issued a general verdict
on the Soviet era and the Soviet regime

as an instrument of power based
on violence that violated its own laws

But that judgement of the past
and Soviet crimes never happened

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