Some Surprising Things

published on July 20, 2020

Hey Vsauce Michael here what's wrong are you normal well today let's bathe our brains with those questions and scrub down the things that are surprising and counterintuitive what does it mean to be normal in the first place well maybe it just means to be average but an average

Can be a bit weird a bit misleading for instance think of it this way the average human has one breast and one testicle also the average person has not climbed to the top of Ganga insa in fact no one has gang carpo insa is

Considered the tallest mountain on earth that has yet to be summited and it's unlikely it ever will be soon it lies on the border of China and Bhutan and local governments believe the area to be holy and no mountaineering or climbing is

Allowed but don't worry there are plenty more there are at least a hundred other recognised Peaks that are quite tall and remain unsummon 'add that's great it's surprising to think that earth has so many places that still have yet to be

Conquered or explored at least we were all born here on earth Derek from the YouTube channel veritasium where were you born small Australian town called tur alga but were you really born there

I'm suspicious of Derek's answer because saying that you were born on Earth's surface is like saying you were born in a taxi cab the taxi cab may still be around but is it in the exact same location that it was at the moment of

Your birth probably not like a taxi cab the earth is moving and it's moving quickly for one the earth is spinning this is real-time footage of Earth's spinning you don't notice much movement at all but that's just because earth is

So large to a distant observer beyond Earth two seconds from now you will be an entire kilometer east from where you are now Earth is also orbiting around the Sun quickly three days ago I was in Singapore from the reference frame of

Earth's surface Singapore is six thousand kilometers away from this place Sydney Australia but in terms of Earth orbiting around the Sun three days ago I wasn't – just six thousand kilometres away I was more than seven million point

Is where you were born when you were born is now just an empty region of space earth will never ever return to my favourite surprise is the solution to the three prisoners problem it's related to the Monty Hall problem of the stakes

Are higher if solution is notoriously counterintuitive say that myself Kevin and Jake have been arrested and we are told that tomorrow morning two of us will be executed we don't know which two so it's a terrible

Night but if I ask a guard to tell me something about what happens tomorrow and the guard says Michael I won't tell you anything about your fate and I won't tell you who lives but I will tell you this little piece of information

Tomorrow morning Jake is one of the guys who will be executed oh what a relief I used to have a 1 in 3 chance of being the one who lives but now that I know Jake dies it's just between Kevin and I my chances of

Living have gone up from one in three two one and two is this great well if I thought that I would actually be wrong in fact my chances of living haven't changed at all and Kevin's are paradoxically now twice as good as mine

How can that be we'll take a look at this this circle represents the three possibilities either tomorrow Jake will live Kevin will live or I will live the hearts represent life isn't that

Beautiful now let's focus on what the guard can tell me in the case that Jake is the one who has been selected to live both Kevin and myself will die tomorrow but the guard cannot tell me anything about myself and he cannot tell me who

Lives so if Jake is the one chosen to survive all the guard can tell me is that Kevin will be one of the guys who dies tomorrow that's it now in this case where Kevin is the guy selected to live both myself and Jake will die tomorrow

But the guard can't tell me about myself and cannot tell me who lives so all the guard can say is that tomorrow Jake is one of the guys who will die here's where it gets interesting if I am the one who has been picked to live tomorrow

The guard has a choice he can either tell me that Kevin is the one who will die tomorrow or he can tell me that Jake is one of the guys who will die tomorrow well look at what we've got here if the guard tells me that Jake is one of the

Guys who will die tomorrow I am only faced now with these possibilities in one-third of these cases I am the survivor and in 2/3 of these cases Kevin is the survivor my chances haven't changed and Kevin's are now twice as

Good as mine used to be it is a beautiful day here in Sydney before I arrived in Australia I was in Singapore where it was also beautiful but incredibly humid the air felt thick

To move through and breathe but in actuality humid air is less dense than dry air Derek tell us about Avogadro's law well a begad robe came up with the idea that in a given volume of gas at a given temperature and pressure there

Will be always the same number of gas particles doesn't matter what the gas is if it's helium or nitrogen or oxygen and that holds true for air which is a mixture of gases that's right so it's got nitrogen and oxygen

Principally but if it's humid air then you replace some of those nitrogens and oxygens with water and water is lighter than the diatomic nitrogen and oxygen that exists in our atmosphere right oxygen and nitrogen have masses of 32

And 28 whereas water is just 18 humid air is actually much less dense than dry air it's lighter and things can move through it more easily this is especially true when it comes to baseballs

A baseball travels through humid air more easily and further with the same amount of energy if air becomes more humid and decreases drag by only five percent that can mean the difference between a fly ball and a homerun this

Became a problem when indoor baseball stadiums started to play around with the idea of turning on the air conditioning when the rival team came up to bat essentially the air conditioning made the air dryer therefore thicker and made

The rival team hit baseballs shorter distances the word normal by the way is home illogical what does that mean a home illogical adjective describes itself for instance the word tiny is pretty tiny it's small word the word

Unhyphenated is unhyphenated normal is one of the top 1000 most commonly spoken and written words the word normal is normal it describes itself but there are also words that are heterological adjectives that don't

Describe themselves for instance the word misspelled with yes well if you don't misspell it if you don't misspell it what about abbreviated ooh I like that one too what about German German not a German

Word that is a good that's a good one how about mono syllabic that's heterological because it doesn't describe itself but polysyllabic for sure I especially love just how home illogical Pinta syllabic is yeah five

Syllables what is genius yeah well it's the way words are the way they normally are but what about you are you normal well a common way of defining normal is to say that something about you is normal if you fall within just one

Standard deviation of the average for all people but there are a lot of things about you you can easily think of saying 36 different independent variables different things to say about yourself for instance how tall you are

How many friends you have how bad your breath is or say how often you lie now the statistical probability that you would be normal for all 36 of those different attributes is actually one in a million

Which means mathematically speaking it is quite abnormal to be normal and as always thanks for watching

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