Retracing The Steps Of Historic Celtic Warriors | Historic Tracks | Timeline

published on July 2, 2020


Britain is criss-crossed find amazing

network of region track boys these

remarkable roots are out

we traveled for more than 5,000 years

he's quite small thing is small boy is

mighty small what my teeth have

overheard my ribs and traders punches

and invaders Celts and roadman Saxons

and Vikings each track is bound up in

myth mystery and legend

of all the archaeological finds I've

come across when I heard about it

my jaw actually drop I'm on a quest to

connect the clues and rediscover the

stories hidden among Britain's ancient

pathways I want to find out what it is

that tempts today's travelers to go back

in time and rediscover these mystic


do you reckon that's the North Star not

the brightest side this guy but it's

probably one the most useful sprit like

me smell a letter you can still smell it

nineteen hundred year old leather isn't

that absolutely amazing

this week I'm trekking the ancient

earthwork frontier that straddles the

border between England and Wales offers

nice inspired by legends that transcend

time itself if I walk along this

remarkable route

we'll reveal a mythical monarch romantic

scribes Pierson's these are the paths

our ancestors once followed the ancient

tracks we in Britain can still walk



my journey begins in England on the

shore at said Bri Gloucestershire and

the southern starting point of something

quite remarkable

this is the mighty river seven you've

got whales over there England over there

and since 1966 they've been linked by

that beautiful elegant bridge and I

actually feel quite at home here because

I used to live just beyond that big

stanchion there in Bristol and I still

support Bristol City come on new rigs

but that isn't the boundary that we're

interested in today just beyond that big

cliff there is another boundary between

England and Wales one that's existed for

over a thousand years and is full of

myth and legend it's time to explore

offers Dyk century king


offers Dyk stretches more than 80 miles

dividing the two great nations of

England and Wales through centuries of

tribal conflicts religious strife and

local legends this ancient border has

helped define what it means to be

English and Welsh I'm going to walk

north from the Severn Estuary along the

author's Dyke path a modern reinstated

version that follows the course of much

of its ancient namesake on my Trek I'll

explore the borderlands between the

ancient English and Welsh kingdoms of

Mercia and Powis finishing my walk as

the Dyke crosses the river 7 again near

Welsh pool

the way our walk in the wake of romantic

poet William Wordsworth explore the

subterranean resting place of King

Arthur confront Wales is fearsome

mythical emblem

under the priceless gold coin issued by

King offer Fraser Valley

authors dike a massive ditch and Bank

structure has been around for more than

1,200 years

the earliest records of this formidable

frontier come as early as the 9th

century when the Welsh monk a sir wrote

there was in murcia in fairly recent

time a certain vigorous king called

offer who had a great dike built between

Wales and Murcia from sea to sea


a lot of people have never even heard of

office dicot then he got a vague idea

where it is and indeed it is quite

difficult to find in the landscape for

many of its miles although when you

climb up on a bit like this and get to

the top you are at the top of one of the

most important monuments in Britain this

took hundreds of man-hours thousands of

people in order to make it in fact it's

such a great piece of ancient

engineering that a lot of people compare

it with the building of the pyramids


but unlike the pyramids King offers

extraordinary achievements have in

recent times faded from view it wasn't

always this way

Alfred created this massive earthwork

but he also created something else which

is much smaller but is still remembered

and it's this we've all got them

floating around in our pockets haven't

we the humble penny offer established

the English penny which still exists

over a thousand years later the penny

had pronounced offer Rex Anglorum king

of the English but it actually

represented this visionary rulers global

ambitions when it came to currency and

commerce I'll reveal more about this


Oh Hugh written records were kept at the

dykes built though inevitably legend

flourished and the path over time has

become an inspiration for an illustrious

roll-call of authors and artists before

me that is who have walked its route


and this next ominously named Scotland a

journey I've been promised a certain

devilish science serum and a feast for

the eyes of one of Britain's most

awe-inspiring views


can you see that beautiful ruin over

there that of course is Tinton Abbey and

just below me down this rather hairy

little path yep there is that is the

devil's pulpit this book was written the

1880s by Wirt

Sykes and he says near Tinton Abbey

there is a jutting crag overhang by

gloomy branches of the you called The

Devil's pulpit his eminence ie the devil

used in other days and wickeder days to

preach atrocious morals or in morals to

the white robed Cistercian monks of the

Abbey from this rock pulpit in other

words here he'd be looking down at the

monks trying to seduce them into doing

all sorts of disgusting things but they

were good and holy and Noble so they

didn't get juiced up at all and in

frustration he stamped his feet and you

can still see the marks on the top of

the pulpit where as if he'd been a

little bit more cool he could have

enjoyed the spectacular view couldn't

for the rather more serious minded

william wordsworth the magnificent in

turn and the epic walking tour that

would lead him there were inspirations


but it wasn't any old poem he wrote it

in the meter of someone walking along so

he was reminding himself of how he felt

when he saw it I've got the first few

lines on this postcard here it's

actually called lines composed a few

miles above Tinton Abbey on revisiting

the banks of the why during a tour not

the punch list of titles but I think

you'll get what I mean about the rhythm

of it five years have passed five

summers with the length of five long

winters and again I hear these waters

rolling from their Mountain Springs with

a soft inland murmur once again do I

behold the steep and lofty cliffs that

on a wild secluded scene impressed

thoughts of more deep seclusion and

connect the landscape with the quiet of

the sky see what I mean


I wonderful like the Tinton Abbey poem

so much because I'm an actor and though

what the words in it are so muscular

consciously recreating the way he walked

in the metre of this poem yes because he

wasn't a person who sat down at his desk

and wrote this poem was written a few

miles above Tintin so very specifically

and the dates prove that so we know that

he was composing as he went along and

Wordsworth would dictate his poetry like

Milton used to do so he wasn't a desk

poet he was very much an action poet in

the sense that he would be as he was

walking he would use the rhythm of his

walk he was a prodigious Walker yes he

was I mean he was a very athletic Walker

he walked a thousand miles across Europe

one summer on a kind of cheap grand tour

and he could walk 20 miles without

thinking about it what would Cincinnati

have been like in those days

well the ruins would not have been as

quiet as they were now for example I

mean when were words with us here there

were beggars living in the ruins of the

abbey there poor people who he wouldn't

have met if he hadn't just got out there

on the road that's right on that note I

think I will say goodbye now if I cross

that bridge there am I still in England

no I think that's the gateway into Wales

so I wish you no blisters and good

weather yeah nice to meet you

as I crossed the border and take my

first steps into Wales I'm hungry for a

close-up experience of this glorious

vision of Gothic architecture

the quite stunning Tinton Abbey was

founded in 1131 and Nestle's in a valley

surrounded by misty green mountains

it's dramatic ruins never failed to

provide travelers with an unforgettable





really Wordsworth wasn't the only young

artist to come here

Turner painted it and in the early 18th

century a host of artistic young people

flocked here when it was rediscovered as

a sort of wild and magnificent cultural

icon it's not difficult to see why they

were drawn here we call them the

romantics and if there's one thing this

place is it's absurdly romantic it's

like a beautiful dream scape which they

recreated in words and oils and poetry

who wouldn't be inspired by Tinton Abbey






is Britain's longest ancient monument

and even after 1200 years is still

warped by today's travelers wanting to

explore the rich history of this ancient

corner between England and Wales

I'm now following the track back across

the river and back into England this is

the dowered in Herefordshire a limestone

hill around which the river wye has

carved the steep-sided gorge I'm in

search have yet another regal legend but

this time it's King Arthur not often I



sometime around the end of the 17th

century there was a poor elderly woman

who lived near here and she'd lost her

goat and eventually she came to a

woodcutter's camp which was here she

asked the woodcutters if they'd seen her

goat and they said well we're not quite

sure but there is a cave just here and

we think we might have heard a bit of

bleating from inside it and in those

days it was really closed up and she

said well I can't see anything can can

you hack a bit of the cave down so they


what they did find was a gigantic

skeleton of a man about 12 foot long and

I don't know whether or not they managed

to find the goat but they carried the

skeleton out and it became the talk of

the local area and I would love to be

able to show it to you but I can't

because they eventually took it down to

Bristol gave it to a chap called mr pie

who was just about to go off on his ship

to the West Indies and stupidly he took

the skeleton with him and the ship

foundered and the skeleton was lost so

there is no tangible evidence but

everybody around here believes that

skeleton did exist and it was the

skeleton of king arthur now whether or

not it really was I have no idea but I'm

not on my own today I've got a friend

with me Sarah Sarah Peverley

do you reckon those bones could have

been the bones of King Arthur it would

be amazing to think that they were

wouldn't it it would be absolutely

wonderful there's so many connections in

this area with the Arthurian myth

you're almost tangibly since Arthur here

cut yeah you can't I mean the Arthurian

myth has a pull on our islands generally

it crops up it gets rewritten lots and

lots of times in moments of crises so

whenever there's a big conflict in the

country the Arthurian myth flourishes

again it's a way of reminding people

that unification is important and of

course sites like this are absolutely

integral to keeping that myth alive

because you've got that kind of over

worldliness about it it certainly does

feel very otherworldly you can really

imagine Lancelot and Guinevere cantering

through this environment solutely I mean

this place is just so evocative isn't it

it's it's got that kind of liminal feel

to it where you've got the supernatural

and the natural worlds colliding you can

imagine a fairy or a dragon living in

such a cave I love that word living on

you've got the line between the mystery

inside a cave and the reality of the

outside you've got the two countries

Wales and England marked by that line of

offers died this area is quivering with


before we fall to pieces


Stone Age people used these caves as

shelter and Flint's used by hunters can

be dated to more than ten thousand years


it's these remnants of fantastic ancient

beasts such as mammoths leave rhino

jawbone of a wolf

and these extraordinary hyenas teeth

that really fire the imagination but I

want to know if there's any scientific

evidence to back up claims of King

Arthur's existence I'm feeling the news

of some archeological discoveries in a

cave up ahead may give me some answers

there's a killer path this is so skinny

it's only a few hundred feet down there

but must have taped me the best part of

20 minutes to get up here Tim try and

stand upright this is really extreme

archaeologists certainly it yes it does

look pretty spectacular it's an amazing

cave are there any human beings

associated with it yes there are lots

and too in particular the remains of two

male individuals that date from about

600 AD 600 AD were they that's perfect

time for us it is isn't it the Romans

have just left yes the Saxons have yet

to arrive yes and it's it's it's a

period for Herefordshire and the Welsh

borders about which we know very little

so we were very very surprised when the

date came back has 586 10 AD now what

might that be at your feet well these

are some of the fine stone II just like

a comedy bone it certainly isn't I mean

it tells you how well-preserved he was

that's a femur it is that's a bit bigger

than mine definitely he was over six

foot in his socks and this is most of

his head so again typical of the age his

teeth are very very worn Wow

you know when you've got your your teeth

for 65 years plus and stone ground bread

you're gonna get through it that

beautifully preserved well we may not

have King Arthur but we've got someone

from the time of King Arthur and that's

good enough for me


and yet more historical finds and

ancient tales both real and imagined lie

ahead and following the path north re

crossing the border into Wales and

travelling forward several centuries to

discover the three castles built in the

Meno Valley as part of the Norman

conquest of South Wales between England

and Wales but it was William the

Conqueror who resolved to add an extra

impenetrable layer to of his mighty dike



20 William the Conqueror came to Britain

from France he upgraded off his

defensive line by putting in a load of

castles along the dike

he knew that their sheer bulk and height

would prevent his Norman soldiers from

being hammered by the force of the

mighty Welsh bowmen these deadly arrows

tore through the air and chainmail to

strike fear into the Norman invaders I'm

intrigued that such a seemingly

primitive weapon could create so much

carnage I know that the Normans were

terrified by the Welsh bow and the Welsh

bowmen but what was a Welsh bows well if

we put aside the starry-eyed romanticism

of there being a Welsh longbow there

isn't really a great difference in the

in the actual bow itself it's more from

the material that it made but more

importantly the use of the bow how they

were actually deployed by the Welsh

basically rebels guerrilla warfare

fighting so this is a real gorilla

weapon yes it's not like King Arthur's

Excalibur that unites the whole country

this is like your ak-47 of its day it's

not as precise sniper rifle but it does

its job for fight very quickly so you

can have a pop of their little squirt

Luke I think I can do that for you yes

let's see that okay



beause the battlements of the skirmishes

along this border were indeed

unrelenting in those enormous times

walking off as Dyke today offers a sort

of no-man's land jobs to meditate about

ancient warring nations and the nature

of borders and then on to sunk addicts

church at Ranga top lingo it which is in



this beautiful whitewashed exterior may

seem serene but within lurks yet another

reminder of the bloodthirsty conflicts

return another legend


it's all that white on the outside seems

pretty authentic but inside it would

have been a completely different kettle

of fish you see this fresco which was

discovered fairly recently all those

reds and oranges I think in here it

would have been a riot of color

now that is sent George he sees a helmet

and see the plume coming out of it which

is called a panache which it's pretty

appropriate and he is treading just

about make it out I think on the red

dragon now whether that is simply a

symbol of good triumphing over evil or

whether it's the English stomping all

over the world I have absolutely no idea

you can be the judge of that

I'm not going there

this is a hugely symbolic

lost it's still extremely impressive in

the lab

denying how iconic the dragon is for

Wales as an antagonist mothers die

really is a place potent in myth and

legend where these natural identities


the imagination captured in folklore and

verse and further along offers dying

literary giants international artists

and a fantastic forest will proclaim the

enigmatic beauty this enchanted land



up to an impressive 80 meters wide and

three meters deep Arthur's Dyke is the

immense 8th century frontier that

divides England and Wales as I walk the

path that follows much of history and

literary heroes weave stories that

collectively define the relationship

between these two proud nations no place

better celebrates this storytelling

tradition than my next stop

I've reached hay bluff a prominent Hill

at the northern tip of the Black

Mountains which straddles the border

between England and Southeast Wales I'm

just coming down off a bluff which is

the highest point on the toughest dying

path it's a bit of a slog but it's

really worth it because you can see all

over Herefordshire great views and now

I'm going down there to visit one of my

favorite events certainly my favorite

festival in the whole world

the Dyke has led me to hay on why the

town of books half English half Welsh

and a modern mecca for lovers of the

written word in a setting that has

itself inspired so many wonderful

writers could there be any more perfect

place to celebrate the

this is gonna be the biggest the most

influential the best organized literary

festival in the whole world I've been

coming here every year for years

sometimes just as a punter sometimes to

speak or perform but I always find it

quite intoxicating in every tent there's

a philosopher political thinker a writer

it's an assertion of ideas of discourse

of talking of a freedom and hope really

just as each their builds a journey each

word comes together to create a story

and there's one particular travel writer

who helped the spirit of this land close

to his heart no matter where he wrote

I'm on a mission hey is all about


this one's wonderful bookshop of your

dreams and I'm looking for travel

writers his travel writers along here

ABC yes there we go oh of course would

be one of my wouldn't it Bruce Chatwin

what about greatest travel writers

English but inspired by the history and

heritage of Wales on the black Hill told

the story of twin brothers living in a

bleak Welsh farmhouse straddling the

English Welsh border and Chatwin's

insatiable wanderlust inspired much of

his writings he once said man's real

house isn't his home it's the road and

life itself is a journey to be walked on

foot agree more

chadwin died aged just 48 having only

published five books but his reputation

as one of our finest writers was already

secured and his literary influence

continues to this day

you've written about this place I have I

wrote running for the hills and if I

could have done I would have called it

on the Black Hill but unfortunately

someone got there before you bruised

Jacko and nicked my titles 20 years

before yes and he dug up the dirt the

stories the myths and the legends have a

whole swathe of hereford shown this side

of Paris then he takes it all and he

puts it into on the Black Hill and it's

wonderful in that it's the story of the

place in terms of time which isn't


but the cyclical and goes with the

seasons and that's how I experienced

growing up here I think there is a deep

truth there about how time happens in

this region must be loads of stories

about this place it's thick with stories

so we could start over there with the

Lea lithic and we can move through the

Romans the Normans Second World War and

right up to the current there's the best

fields in the valley because there was

an almighty battle between the English

and the Welsh down there and of course

the blood according to my Godfather's

soaked into the soil invaded I'm so

conflicted about offers died on one hand

it seems to me this very old ancient

thing and on the other hand it's really

quite young compared with an awful lot

of British history isn't it it sounds

old doesn't it they offer is it is old

old English yeah it sounds like a way

back but then compared to around here I

mean they we measured time in quite

different ways I mean so this is old red

Devonian sandstone that we're standing

on I think it's 365 million years old

and all this would have been a sort of

shallow lake at one point in the

Pliocene so you know is really quite

recent as in the old offer where's the

border board it's directly behind us so

you can feel the weight of the mountain

behind us but the border here is partly

a function of geography and partly a

function of the mind

there's always something odd about

borderlands isnt it is it's a very

emotive island really it's a sure

between two cultures and you know what

if we'd been up here 2,000 years ago

I bet someone like you we've been

telling someone likely similar stories

from the previous two or three thousand

it's a lovely thought yeah

as well as on the Black Hill Borderlands

also inspired Bruce Chatwin seminal

travel book in Patagonia with its tales

of Welsh immigrants settled in the vast

South American region straddles Chile

and Argentina but here on the crest of

her ggest Ridge high up on the path

there's a little piece of Wales that

will be forever


this is typical borders country isn't it

really risk wind blowing got these

fantastic views as far as the eye can

see nothing – all growing but Bracken

well not quite nothing actually because

look at this you've got this absurd

clump of monkey puzzle trees why well

apparently about half a century ago

there was a local gardener who realized

that the winter temperature around here

is very similar to the winter

temperature in Argentina which is where

the monkey puzzle trees grow naturally

so he planted them and they've certainly


so in this funny little oasis you're

suddenly in Patagonia I'm sure Bruce

Chatwin wouldn't really have approved


leaving this puzzling patch of forest

behind I'm in search of reception of the

dyke regarded by many as the finest on

the route both the views of the Dyke and

the surrounding spectacular landscape

that leads to fanfare Hill


but before I get there I'm stopped in my

tracks by a beautiful oasis

riot of color on an otherwise verdant

landscape and the woman behind this

stunning floral scene connects yet

another distant land with offers dyke


this gorgeous little cottage hello it's

fantastical you lived here uh 30 years

Wow did you create this garden yourself

yes yes I did it's my family daggering

Lee beautiful cute a bit wild two things

I can see the dazzle of color and the

big open sky wonderful open skies and I

always say I live here because the earth

meets the sky without interruption

we born in England no I was actually

born in Uganda and I was Ugandan refugee

when I was a child so my family were

kicked out of Uganda and then I grew up

in West London south or south or west

Athol girl but I couldn't wait to get

back to somewhere that was rural because

we'd come from rural Africa buta Bay by

the lake and so I just longed to go go

somewhere that reminded me of home and

was home one of many tell me well and

down this track and down the hill that's

crew have you them might be popping in

no it's fantastic unexpected that thank

you bye

from Uganda by London to office night

Tahira has certainly come a long way to

find her perfect home but the beautiful

familiarity of the landscape realized

the ambition of the man who gave the

Dyke its name King offer had a vision a

desire to reach into the Arab world and

establish an alliance far beyond the





on the dye is a spectacular ancient

earthwork that splits the nations of

England's of Wales may believe is a

defensive structure showing strength

made by the King behind its name while

the 8th century King Arthur led the

English kingdom of Mercia through a

golden age this progressive ruler had

ambitions to spread his Midas touch much

further afield


because we've got virtually nothing

written down precisely who offer was

earned what he did remains a bit of a

shadow but we do have two tangible

pieces of evidence Dyck and a coin not

the cute little penny which I showed you

at the beginning of the program but an

extraordinary gold one which is lodged

at the British Museum


the gold coin of offer is a very

significant object in the history of

ancient Britain the coins design at

first glance resembles the gold dinars

but it is in fact not of Arabic origin

it was actually engraved struck and

issued in England by King Arthur I'm

enthralled about how this incredible

centuries-old link with the Arabic world

came about you know of all the

archaeological finds that I've handled

over the years this is one of the two or

three that when I saw about it my jaw

absolutely drop really I just think it's

amazing and then what's written around

the outside it says Mohammad ur Rasool


which basically means Muhammad is the

prophet of God that is so extraordinary

8th century yeah and you've got this

mercian King king of a third of England

or whatever and he's got round his name

on a coin that he's produced Muhammad is

the prophet of God yeah was he a convert

to Islam there's a theory that that

happened but I think it's baseless

really what do you think if you wanted

to trade with a civilization that

controlled around you know the land

around the Mediterranean yeah you

wouldn't need to use a gold coin so he

thought well you know they use dinars

possibly I can use one too so as far as

arthur was concerned looking across the

English Channel the Muslim Empire would

have been massive wouldn't it well

you're talking from Portugal and Spain

south of France all the way across the

top of Africa Middle East as we know it

Central Asia all the way across to

Pakistan that's huge

it's made wonderful that you've got this

tiny little window into offers life here

we are standing on the Dyke

and we now know that offer recognized

that the Muslim Empire was out there and

for some reason maybe a bit diplomatic

hit knowledged it by writing about it on

the outside of one of his coins exactly

I think it's it's been lost in time it's

a tragedy that we don't

our past and our European history really

now in the 21st century you know we

still think Muslims and Islam is new but

twelve hundred years ago it was there

you know at the doorstep really and in

inside Europe right here on this diet

they were aware of it that's right


one of the annoying things about doing a

long walk like this is that the whole

procedure does tend to get a bit insular

you're constantly being confronted by

the things close to you and even the

horizon looks like you're looking at the

whole world so it was really reassuring

to come face to face with offers coin

and know that the man who built this

dike wasn't only thinking about this

area but was in some way engaging with

Rome the far side of the Mediterranean

and maybe even Baghdad and beyond the

idea is tantalizing offers gold coin

connects cultures across continents in

an age 1200 years ago when such an

achievement might be thought improbable

to think what little we know of this

enigmatic room

if only his story had been written down

but it wasn't and I must satisfy my

curiosity with a walk along the great

dike that honors his name

what lies ahead is a link that honors

our much more money

west of the town of nain in Central

Powers County named after the ancient

world kingdom I approached the vantage

point of beacon dream

and I've time at last to reflect on this

beautiful fertile

and my journey along offers Dyk my

intriguing final destination lies ahead

at first glance this Hill is just a

dense circular wood flanked by jarring

modern-day transmitter masts but there's

more to it than that this would have

been an amazing strategic viewing point

in the old days

you've got England laid out in front of

you there then you've got the border and

you've got Wales all the way along there

it's called beacon ring but there's

something rather curious about it

it's an old hill fort but it wasn't just

used in the Iron Age it's crammed full

of history the Britons fought the

northumbrian here was used in the War of

the Roses but look it's jam-packed full

of trees you've got beaches you've got

conifers what is the forest doing in the

middle of an Iron Age hill fort

and as I'm about to find out from a

custodian at this beautiful Welsh

landscape this peculiar juxtaposition of

the old with the new crowns this

elevation in more ways than one

Paul I'm sorry to her to disturb your

work but this does seem a bit odd to me

I've seen hill forts with one or two

trees in but you've got you've got a

hole cops in here it's actually

plantation that was put here in 1953 and

partly to commemorate the coronation of

Her Majesty the Queen and what would it

have looked like well it's a combination

of spruce and beech trees and the

monogram e to our is picked out so you

can see that from the air you say can be

seen from the air but it just looks like

a great big mound of trees now it does

from here and it's slightly overgrown

they reach maturity and our program over

the next few years is to try and remove

them gradually as we have done here with

the with the vegetation on the ramparts

and return it to its natural grassland

state is intriguing isn't it we've got a

bold statement by one monarch in the

Dyke and then we've got a bold statement

about another one on the hill fort which

you're about to whip out we're going to

gradually return it to its an earlier

natural state

I think is how I would put it have you

mentioned it to the palace I'm afraid

not no I should okay all right I mean I

really sure

on the ground the effect is invisible


it's remarkable enjoy this unique view

while it lasts


trees spell out e to Elizabeth Regina


these trees are mere saplings when

compared with authors dikes amazing 1200


my war this ancient route defines the

very essence of what it means to be

English and wealth

and will no doubt continue to do so for

many generations to come

this impressive frontier may have been

built to draw a line between England

sword wielding patron saint and the

fiery red dragon of Wales but over the

centuries it served to strengthen the

national pride and cultural identities

of both these border peoples and allowed

us step-by-step to truly celebrate this

historic boundary and finishing my

journey here where the flow of history

meets the flow of a river

like the ancient dyke slow moving River

meanders between both countries

fully oblivious to any modern border

I'm at the end of my journey now this is


and over here is the largest sheep

market in the whole of Europe doesn't

matter at the moment but it's Sunday so

it's closed over here is the river 7 of

what 90 miles or so and ironically I've

ended up by the side of the same river

as the one where I started this walk has

been about trying to discover something

about this strange border country that

we call the Marches and also to learn a

bit more about King offer have I

succeeded well as Winston Churchill once

said in studying offer we're rather like

a geologist who instead of finding a

fossil finds only a hollow shape in

which a creature of unusual strength and

size undoubtedly resided

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