Live _ Innovating Education & Skills for Digital Economy

by birtanpublished on June 29, 2020

the NPTEL lecture series and a chance to

chat with the students and faculty in

India and what I wanted to share with

you is the subject of global digital

economy and how this subject in changing

our social political economic and most

importantly our education system and our

careers and jobs and about my own

introduction I think you have seen my

bio but I wanted to briefly give you

some of my focus areas I am located here

in Silicon Valley where I worked for

more than 30 years in high-tech

industries IBM and Intel and others and

my focus has been obviously I have been

a lifelong a student of Technology the

first 20 years I was involved in

building technology for the last 10

years I have been more involved with how

to apply technology to sectors of the

economy and work with the industry

amia and governments all around the

world to drive quote-unquote digital

economy so that's the the background let

me share with you the topics I want to

discuss with you or the following the

first thing is the COO mid-nineteen

which is a major pandemic affects not

just people in India but all over the

world we are all in this tragedy


and what you will hear is or see is a

distress be as a global tragedy and

hopefully we will come out of this very

soon a lot of work going on in vaccines

and critics and others but I will also

share with you how pandemics like this

also forces us to learn more way of

doing things and applying new technology

to to address the current issues then

we'll talk about digital economy what is

digital economy means in terms of our

education system our industry our

economy and how we work globally


and then I will share with you

technology major technology focus areas

from AI to blockchain to other other big

data and analytics and so on and then I

will discuss about the work I do the

over the last 10 years called s or iOS

service research innovation Institute

what it means what it our focus areas

and how we work with the leaders around

the world and then I will discuss the

subject of education system followed by

education system which is quite old how

do we drive innovation which is more

geared towards the economy today and

tomorrow then I will talk about prior

what the career means particularly

students like you and academia you have

a big big future in front of you

how do you look at the future of your

own career what career means and what

you will see is career meaning is very

different than what it was 10 20 50

years ago because simply because the

economy of the world and the world is

changing very very fast and the last

thing I want to have a lot of discussion

it's not just my presentations I want to

have a chance to share with you or learn

from you and hopefully answer some of

your questions and have a dialogue and

and hopefully build our connection so we

can continue to discuss the subject even

being this this particular presentation


on the corporate front as I said this is

the global tragedy and we are all going

through this together and what this has

done is it is forcing us to adopt to a

new more more way of doing things and I

think we all experiencing and exercising

all these disciplines remote work I can

tell you from Silicon Valley perspective

I would say nine more than 90 percent of

the employees in Silicon Valley

work from home obviously companies are

trying to bring people slowly back to

work but I personally feel that the work

will never be the same it was before so

even when we have this endemic gone you

will see that remote work will become a

main part of our work system it's just

learning I'm speaking to you via video

and not just this conference or this pot

but distance learning is slowly becoming

a very important part of our learning

system education system and I think this

is just a beginning this will become

even bigger in terms of how we learn

what we learn it won't always have to go

to the classroom and because of the not

just pandemic but even he won't pandemic

it the distance learning is is going to

become a very important part a major

part of our learning system online

entertainment you don't always have to

go to movies you can stream movies and

videos on your PCs and smartphones

telehealth doctors for normal check-ups

you don't need to go to hospital you can

call your physician doctors on the video

I have not been to hospital for many

many decades luckily I have been healthy

so I don't check check with my doctor on

the phone on the video and I think that

even more important as we go forward we

have more advanced technologies coming

in the healthcare that allows us to

communicate and work with our health

the shopping it's no longer just a

nice-to-have is going to become a major

part of our or our shopping style people

don't have to go to stores you can do

everything online digital contactless

payment supply chain robotics drone so

you can see the whole entire social and

economic system he is going through a

new quote unquote norm because of the

crisis like community is forcing us to

adopt – adopt a new approach no system

and most importantly our digital

technology allows us provides us the

tool system to adopt this system you

know ok next one is I will talk about

digital economy what does it really mean

and how its evolving as I said I've been

very fortunate to be part of Silicon

Valley since 1980s so I have been here

for you know 40 plus years and I have

seen the birth and the growth of Silicon

Valley from building transistors to

building computers to internet the

Google the Facebook the Amazon the Apple

and I have been very fortunate to work

with many of those pioneers leaders

Steve Jobs and Bill Gates and founders

of Google and Facebook and so on so I

will share with you some of my

experiences how Silicon Valley has was

born where we are today and most

importantly how we can build Silicon

Valley not just in California but we can

build Silicon Valley all around the

world ok so digital economies let me

give a historical perspective how

economy has evolved so I would not take

you to the Stone Age

billions of years human civilization had

edges just for existed for more than a

billion year from a Stone Age to metal

age to cotton cord agriculture age but

I'm going to walk you through the last

couple hundred years where initially

everything was agriculture everyone was

a farmer there was no other economy

right then

comes Industrial Revolution you got a

steam engine we got railroad we got cars

we got airplanes

then came the quote-unquote

semiconductor transistors and computers

which gave rise to the new economy

called Internet economy and now we are

into the next phase which is called

knowledge economy it's no longer just a

computer and micro processors and

hardware and software

it's about your personal skills and

expertise is what gonna define you your

future so that's this is the era we make

all the knowledge economy the Google

girl the Facebook and all these

companies are all about knowledge

economy they don't sell a microprocessor

that don't sell hardware software they

sell information information and based

on our personal knowledge and skills now

let me walk you through some of the

digital era

so this slide that I'm sharing with you

is a quote on quote how technology

growth has accelerated so if you go back

to 1400 1500 technology was there with a

different technology a printing press

the telescope the steam engine and quote

unquote light bulbs and others so we

have innovated and improved technology

over the last few hundred years but the

innovation was much much smaller the

impact on society of those innovations

were very small you can see that line is

almost flat the real innovation started

in 1950s when semiconductor transistor

was invented and the first transistor

production transistor was in 1960s so


– now 2020 so in in last 60 years or so

this is the era of code encode digital

economy and in fact you can see the

graph it has it shows going X up

straight line means most of the

innovations have happened after the

transistor was invented and that gave

rise to quarter code all this company

that you see

and all the technology that man stood

for granted today it all has happened in

the last 40 50 or 60 years

so in short even though we as humans had

existed for billions of years but what

has happened in the last 50 60 years as

redefined the whole world in terms of

who we are how we work and how the world

works today is quite impressive and

fascinating but important thing to

remember is not just what has happened

in the last 40 50 years but what is

going to happen in the next 10 20 30

years and how that will affect the

economy and all of us as a society and

all of us as individual and I think you

all as a student and academia has a huge

role to play in defining the future of

the quote/unquote society and digital

technology and digital economy as we as

we go forward but that's the message the

message is that the digital economy over

the last 40 50 years as we transform in

everything socially economically

politically what we do how we do but

most important is how things are going

to involve as we go forward ok and you

play a very very important role because

you are the future you are the future

engineers and founders and entrepreneurs

and leaders of the society next slide is

this is the much more sort of futuristic

very complex slide but just talks about

how new economy is going to involve bet

the quote unquote

I call them technology foundations use

you see mobile and cloud and analytics

and AI and blockchain and Internet all

these are cotton court foundation

technology that we are working today

these foundation technology is going to

game code and code innovation

accelerator the IOT nanotechnology

robotics blockchain 3d printing are all

going to come out of coming out of those

quote unquote


technology and the next big slide you

see is quote-unquote the new economy

you will see that will emerge out of

discordant chord innovation that we are

driving so we are just in the early

stage of the coordinate code new digital

economy so there's so much more going to

happen and again you are part of this

code encode making things happen

you are the student you are the faculty

now era of digital transformation if I

had to summarize the things that I have

seen myself back in 80s building

transistor was the coolest thing you can

do I used to work at NASA semiconductor

I used to go in the morning building

transistors and I am stressed it was so

we excited about building transistors I

didn't want to come home I wanted to

stay in the lab then aim Dakotan core

Internet and the computers internet and

then now we are in the new era where

every device has intelligence the iover

team a smartphone the fries and washing

machine cars and shoes and shirt all

will have intelligence they all talk to

each other so we are into a era beyond

internet these computers and cell phone

we have a system where everything has

intelligence everything is going to be

interconnected now the new era is going

to be even more exciting would they call

them the era of digital transformation

where people process systems all

interconnect the providers the customer

the context all these things are going

to be redefined because of digital


in terms of digital economy particularly

from the employment point of view I

think you can see the chart I just

showed you the agriculture economy

everyone was a farmer

back in 1800 1900 they'll aim quotient

code manufacturing economy the

Industrial Revolution so people started

working in factories then came services

industry now the new era is what we call

them digital economy which is all about

information based services that's where

the real growth and that's where the

real job and that's where all the

economy is shifting from not that idea

culture is gone agriculture is still

very important when factoring is still

very important but important thing to

understand is the growth and the most of

the work happening from digital

technology perspective is in the area of

information based services so from

career point of view I think that's your

basic focus is how to Excel how to

understand this particular digital

economy and information based services

and how you build your competency your

career to excel

the next slide is a how the technology

has transformed the global economy so

this slide is a one of my favorite if

you look at last 15 18 years in 2001

most of the companies the largest market

companies where banks and royal and

industrial they're only one company in

that was Microsoft was from the

technology side today all big companies

are technology companies so that shows

you well an industrial and banks have

not gone away they are still there but

the real growth happened in the

technology industry all large companies

are IT companies technology company so

technology has become the foundation of

economy all around the world and I'm

very glad to talk to people like you who

are IIT students and faculty you are

inwardly instrumental in building the

coordinate core the next foundation for

digital economy digital economy has also

disrupted economy so if you look at

today sectors of the economy

right the uber is the largest taxi

company but they don't own any taxi

right Airbnb is the largest hotel

without owning any hotel it's type and

WeChat in the largest telecom company

without any telecom infrastructure right

the the the media the popular media

corner create new content Facebook

doesn't create any content they connect

people who create the create content

right and so on the Apple and the Google

the largest software vendors don't write

the one halves but Netflix the largest

movie hall without owning any call

provider so these are the new economy

created solely because of technology if

you look at how this economy is shifting

and I think this is just a just an

example of what else to come so our


here is the future of the economy is all

going to be redefined the sectors will

all define redefine because of the

technology we are inventing today

okay digital a digitization of the

industry some of the slides that I have

seen before might not be there I'll add

a few few slides so different sectors I

would say that not all economy has in

digital or digital implementation is not

uniform some sectors are using more

digital than the others but you can see

the media the the finance the healthcare

manufacturing energy graph shows you

there's still a lot of major sectors

from manufacturing energy healthcare

these are big big part of economy but

there's still lot of work to be done in

terms of building digital solutions for

these sectors so for students in

academia like you this is the golden

opportunity for you to think about

future think about building solutions

for these kind of sectors which is very

big but it's still Lord of lot of

opportunities right so at the end

digital economy is in a very simple

system and heart is about people

business data devices and processes all

interconnected gives you the code encode

of digital economy

now let me shift gear talked about

briefly about technology trends what's

happening in the not just Silicon Valley

but all around the world in my role in

the last ten years I get to work with

universities and government and

companies all over the world in Asia in

Europe in Australia in India and I I I

am very fascinated and impressed with

all the great innovations more just in

Silicon Valley but all around the world

India plays a very very important role

you have one of the best technical

institutes like IITs and others and you

produce a lot of engineers a lot of

companies but there's still a lot of

work to be done and I will share with

you some of my perspective particularly

from India perspective I was born in

India so I know Indian system

I came to us when I was relatively young

so I lived most of my life in us but I

still visit India and I work with Indian

companies and government and

organizations and deep inside I'm a

still Indian at heart

I work international level I will share

with you some of our my personal

perspectives of few things we can do

better particularly in if I look at the

largest economy in the world United

States is the largest the second largest

is China and if you have seen I am I'm

very connected with China I am visiting

professor at Tsinghua University

I'm also adviser to their government so

I'm very closely connected with the

Chinese economy and industry and I can

see some clear distinction between China

and India in terms of economy in terms

of people in terms of systems and I'll

be very happy to share even beyond this

talk because this talk is really only

limited to one hour but I'll be happy to

connect with you and anyone has

questions and comments we have very

happy to share so let's talk about the

technology focus areas what's happening

in the broader context so at the highest

level three things happening the world

is very

interconnected emergence of digital and

physical world all around right then we

have dynamic maths connection of people

processes things services and that

provides a digital ecosystem and lastly

everything is becoming intelligent so

you will hear a lot about big data data

analytics AI machine learning and XYZ

the blockchain and so on but at the

highest level these are the three major

drivers the interconnected world the

dynamic connection of people and

processes and every system becoming

insulated those are the three biggest

sort of you know change that that is

driving everything else that we do

second thing happening is either and I

will share quite a bit about data a

subject of data data is the new world of

digital economy so as you know the

Industrial Revolution and the industry

before I showed you slide the wall was

the engine of economy now one is no

longer the ringing of the economy I

showed you the biggest companies today

are all digital technology company no

longer Exxon and Mobil and other world

company that used to be the largest

market company so data is becoming the

new oil of the digital economy so I

think you students and faculty one of my

message to you is learn import data as

much as possible doesn't matter what

major you studied computer science

rector engineering industrial mechanical

whatever subjects we study in schools

data is going to be foundation for every

discipline every sectors of economy and

I don't need to go over a lot of the

slides but shows you how the data is

exploding all over the world and most

importantly 90% of the data has been

created in the last two years so that's

kind of the the the the change that we

are dealing with then now you can

imagine how data will look like in the

next five years ten years

where we are dealing with 22 years of

data you can imagine how will you look

in five years ten years how much more

data well villa and how to analyze them

how to make sense how to build economy

around the new data okay

data is coming from many many sources

obviously the PC was our main source of

communication then came the smartphones

now the IOT the sensors are everywhere

everything has sensors every sensor has

has intelligence they connect and

provide tons and tons of data and beyond

the sensor is now the social network in

the people are getting tons and tons of

data at a social level so in the short

story is the data is going to be a very

very big subject and we are just barely

scratching the surface ok by 2025 we

will have generated 116 160 Jake get a

bite Jetta bite is 1 trillion Giga Byte

that that tells you how much data is

going to be there for us to work and

create value create economy create more

career ok I'm going to fast forward some

of the slides because I have many other

slides I have let me see the time wise I

want to make sure that I have enough

time for discussions with you the slide

that big data we're talking about a lot

of big how much data is created in 60

seconds and I think you will see this

kind of slide everywhere right from

weights to all the social medias the

search the emails and all the mobile

applications we use there is a Chilean

zillions of data that we create and the

unfortunate part is what we you will

hear about a structured verses on its

structure 80 percent data it is still we

call them unstructured we don't

understand so all the data Google and

Facebook's and others who are trying to

sell and make money and create economy

is still very small part is still 80

percent data it is not very well

understood so that's a challenge but

also an opportunity for new engineers

like you to go you need

industry create companies create

solutions I will fast forward these

evolution of data analytics this this is

something that people in academia are

very good understanding how we have come

from from data warehousing to data

mining to data analytics and that

subject is a as I said it's very big and

as I said we are barely scratching the

surface there's so much more to be done

particularly in the area of data

analytics where we're a stream

processing massively distributed no SQL

databases and data bytes of data so this

is a huge huge subject in terms of data

analytics at the field the next one is

where we are in terms of data analytics

as a discipline so if you look at the

what we do with the data and the value

of data we inform analyze act and

provide value right so that's sort of

you know the impact of data analytics

and the unfortunate part is lot of our

current focus in data analytics is still

in the early stage collecting data

analyzing data and we are barely trying

to act and prescriptive means how we can

predict what things will happen based on

the enola takes we have done so that

tells you some percentage but those

percentages are not that important

important thing is there is still a lot

of work to be done when it comes to

predictive and prescriptive value of the

data so this is again a huge huge

opportunity for academia and students

like you this cannot just be done in

Google and Facebook and Amazon and Apple

you in the universities have a big role

to play in in going and focusing in the

other subject of data analytics in the

area of predictive and prescriptive

values okay I'm going to fast forward

some of the slides you'll have many

slides you will hear many

subforms data mining data as machine

learning AI

databases what I have shown you is all

these terms are around the core subject

of data mining it is the foundation and

how your mind and that gives rise to all

the other associated subjects data

mining AI statistics computational

neuroscience all these things relies on

data and data mining so important thing

is as I said before you cannot

overemphasize the importance of data and

data mining and data analytics because

this is how all these new fields are

evolving based on the data

the other time you will hear got AI

artificial intelligence and I have been

in the industry for 30-some years and I

have heard and being part of this

subject so I'm gonna share with you some

of my personal perspective I personally

don't like the word AI artificial


I would rather call it augmented

intelligence artificial has a

connotation that somehow it is it is a

substitute to human intelligence or

something different

no human intelligence will always be

very very important human intelligence

we create computers we create data we

build technologies technology doesn't

build human maybe someday we may get

humans being built by technology but

that will be a different era and

different subject but artificial /

augmented reality in the old subject

it's not a new subject

if this subject was discussed in 1960s

70s 80s but important thing is that

subject initially was a much more sort

of you know conceptual a more like a

wish list now it is becoming more and

more real because of three things

yai is becoming far more real now than

it was 30 40 years ago number one we

have lots of data but didn't exist

before I showed you a slide most of the

data 90% data was created in the last

last two years so if you don't have the

data then you cannot analyze it cannot

create artificial intelligence okay so

we have lots of data we have also a lot

of storage we don't have to store data

on the PC and your own server you can

put in the cloud you can store tons and

tons of data more data more storage and

we have much better algorithm we have

ice those data right so at the highest

level AI has becoming important for

those three regions a lot of data or one

more thing the processing power the the

microprocessor and processors when I

started in 82 nineties we are talking


kilo Hertz the megahertz that the the

gigahertz wasn't even never even thought

about right now when I started back in

80's building 100 transistor and one

chip was a big big accomplishment now we

have transistor we have silicon chips

with over 30 billion transistors on once

tiny chips 30 billion transistors that

tells you how they be the processing

power you will hear about these

technologies separately but what you

will start seeing is the convergence of

AI blockchain and IOT giving rise to

sort of new platform new applications

and hopefully new economy okay

5g is another cellular technology which

is that again is going to be a very very

big part of economy because now our our

economy is becoming very mobile we use

smart phones for almost everything but

application means to be much faster to

do more and more things more water so we

need to go from currently speed of what

we call them to almost a gigabyte by the

speed per second compared to make up

megabytes per second today and that's a

5g has a promising technology monitoring

platform and a lot of work is still

needs to be done I see in India the Geo

from Alliance reliance is working on

driving mobile technology in India

hopefully they will play important role

Internet security is another very big

subject so I'm just sharing with you

some of the subjects that is very

complex but lot of opportunity or young

engineers and students like you and

academia to sort of focus in looking at

the future internet security is becoming

a big subject for the following region

at one hand internet was built around

connecting the whole world for doing

everything so at one hand techno

pushing everyone to connect with each

other and do everything on the Internet

on the other hand we also find that this

creates a lot of loopholes there could

be bad actors who can also create some

major problem if we are not very careful

so internet security is becoming as

technology advances it also poses a new

threat from security point of view how

do we shake your what we are building

and there is no one solution

I think the from what I see from Silicon

Valley around the world it's almost like

a balanced approach you can't be so

afraid of security and not drive

innovation you need to keep driving

innovation and keep fixing the holes

that it creates you can't just get so

paranoid about security that you cannot

drive innovation so innovation and

handling security has to go hand-in-hand

so anyway I've shared with you economy

of the world house becoming digital I've

shared with you and a bigger picture of

the internet and how its evolving now

I'm going to share with you what I am

working on personally with leaders

around the world called SR III we

created a sorryi about 10 years ago

after spending 20 years in Silicon

Valley working for IBM and Intel I

realized that companies no matter how

big you are

companies focus on technology product

company one company cannot focus on

economy cannot focus on health care

versus finance versus transportation

vers ecommerce so what we me and some of

my friends in Silicon Valley who have

spent similar amount of time we got

together we felt that we need to think

beyond one company we need to look at

global economy and how can digital

technology not just help IBM and Intel

and Microsoft and Google become bigger

and make more money and the stock price

go up and people become rich but how can

we help 75 billion people in the world

and that's one challenge we have digital

technology and economy has evolved and

doing wonderful things but if you look

at at a global level we have 75 billion

people in the world right but the

digital economy and digital technology

has not reached all 75 billion people

how do we help with this this this this

wonderful great things we are creating

do not just help a small percentage of

the people currently we are talking

about billion 2 billion people and not

only people who are rich can you afford

all these digital solutions but how do

we help people we have limited resources

limited earnings how do we help digital

technology be useful to them so this is

kind of the thinking of creating SRO I

service research innovation Institute we

created with the participation of big

companies academia industry from all

over the world

our mission was Drive digital solution

for economy at large and if for a better

world so it's no longer just helping one

complete one technology but helping

society at large and do this here is our

the the major strategy strategies at one

hand we look at economy look at health

care education government finance

manufacturing energy retail telecom

agriculture transportation this is how

the global economy runs these are the

sectors of economy right people work in

this economy they connect and they

provide services in on the right hand

side is technology

eeew and cloud computing is computing

data only takes mobile social networking

internet security and so on so how do we

connect these technology innovation to

sectors of economy so that's our major

focus in Illinois that cannot be done at

one company level that requires a global

platform and this is what we created

about 10 years ago when I was part of

the IBM research and then we made SRO i

independent and i became the founder and

the CEO

our mission here is if you look at this

technology innovations from Intel and

Microsoft and Google and Apple and

others they are now they are all moving

to the bigger picture oh I am AI company

and I'm a cloud company but if you look

at closely

Microsoft is all about building

operating system office and so on Intel

is about building micro processors

Google Apple is about building

smartphones right so this company is

still very technology focused around a

specific area they have competency which

is great now what is happening is all

these technology companies are moving to

the higher level if you talk to Intel on

Microsoft they would not tell you I am a

OS and microprocessor company they will

tell you I am a cloud company I'm a big

data company and so on we have moved

from product technology discussion to

Courtin core platform discussion but

that's still not enough we need to

connect this technology to economy what

does healthcare how healthcare runs of

manufacturing runs

what does cloud mean for healthcare what

is Big Data mean for finance versus

agriculture so this is a big subject

that requires all of us to connect to

build solutions taking advantage of the

technology to connect into economy so

this is our big focus in Israel and the

way we look at it is and I will fast

forward this thing I know we have a

20-some minutes left so healthcare so

the way we look at every sector we

looked at from sector point of view we

don't look at home technology if you

look at the technology industry in the

past every technology industry looks at

from technology side and how their

technology product can solve industry

challenges so Intel build mobile

microprocessor how a microprocessor can

help health care and manufacturing and


Microsoft will OS an office to help

those sectors now we are looking from

the end user side how did healthcare run

what is their major issues how can

technology help how can cloud and big

data and mobility help health care more

not the other way around

put the end-user in the center and then

understand their problems and challenges

and then build solutions

don't force technology on top of

somebody without moving their issues so

that's a big shift that's happening in

the technology industry to understanding

the end-user and building the right

solution so I'm going to fast forward

this slice but you got the picture so if

you look at healthcare healthcare for

problem is ASP quality brand-new how

healthcare runs healthcare it is still

the most costly system not just in US

but all over the world government and

society spends most of their money on

the healthcare okay what kind of what

kind of value we get out of the the cost

right how can we make healthcare more

more productive more efficient and then

how do we apply Big Data cloud and

mobility to help doctors do a better job

the insurance company do a better job

how and the patient's being in charge of

their own health care right so you

should have a technology should become

your personal doctor that to tell you

how you feel and they can talk to your

doctor of your pharmacy and so on okay

this application of AI into and all this

technology in healthcare I'm just

selling this slide how healthcare is an

example how all these technology we

talked about has a huge role to play and

value to provide don't make two of these

sectors right okay wearable sensors

medication adherence artificial

intelligence as a robot right how can

the biotechnology bio nanotechnology can

be helpful

we healthcare understanding our inner

operation of the system right there's

much to be done the still a lot of

innovation needs to be done human body

is very complex we still don't

understand human body inside exactly how

each system work can be apply some

nanotechnology to better understand the

inner function of our body right so the

lot of work to be done in this area


same thing manufacturing how

manufacturing is changing manufacturing

was all in the past putting a lot of

people to a certain task

now those tasks are being replaced by

robots and computers and drones and

others how do we build apply data

analytics cloud computing robotics to

drive manufacturing efficiency and

productivity as we go forward I can tell

you I work in China with lot of

companies China's largest economy

manufacturing right and they are in the

process of transitioning from

manufacturing to quote-unquote digital

economy it's a big big subject how do

you move from port encode manufacturing

based economy to digital economy

particularly when they have such a large

population 17 billion people

where they have the jobs in

manufacturing how can you train them to

be more digitally competence and work in

the area of Nan field but that has to

happen and that is how every country is

going to draw you I'm going to share

some agriculture subject of Agriculture

I presented recently to it to

agriculture technology something as I

said before agriculture it is still very

important part of our economy not just

as a part of GDP but we as humans we

can't survive for too long without good

food we can survive without computers or

smartphones and internet for a few days

but we can't survive without food so we

still need food and the other thing is

the global population is getting bigger

right people are moving out of the

farming religious to the cities a lot of

factors affecting performing

business so how do we help agriculture

and most importantly people who work in

the article's industry they are not

necessarily most technically literate

people how do we help them with this new

IOT and cloud and big data technology so

the farmers and the more productive

farming and agriculture is one of the

least productive in terms of the how

much earning farm yourself they are the

poorest among all the sectors of economy

how do we provide this sort of

technology agricultural industry so that

we help the farmers we produce the

better quality food we can manage the

food supply and the quality of food in a

much more intelligent way a smart city

the cities are becoming crowded

everywhere people are moving from I just

said rule to the big cities but city

doesn't have infrastructure I go to

India and I see big cities like

Bangalore and Delhi and others nightmare

I know how people even drive in all

people live in such a congested place

and the air quality and the

infrastructure how do we make city more

cleaner and more productive and more

efficient so much to be done in the

small city area government how

government runs a government plays a

very big part of economy and society all

over the world particularly in emerging

economies like India where government is

your biggest source of resources a

bigger source of employment and how do

we provide government right tools and I

know Modi's government I am somewhat

connected with them Modi was here in

Silicon Valley a few years ago and I had

a chance to meet with the Moody and his

team and he had a very good chat and I

he they sounded very excited about

applying digital India they call it and

they're talking at least to do a lot of

work in the area of making economy and

government more digital but it's not

just for India but governments all

around the world we need a better

infrastructure better tools for

government to

to provide the right services right

services to the citizens and so on so

this is therefore how do we make men

more productive with the help of digital

technology now I'm going to shift gear

hopefully all that time to talk about

education education is something that I

spend on now at least twenty thirty

percent of my time with the universities

around the world at the lecture and also

teaching some programs because education

is where the young people we create the

workforce of the future and they are the

future leaders and I must tell you even

when I worked in the in Silicon Valley

but I've also worked with the academia

world with Berkeley and Stanford and

others in Silicon Valley very closely

and I am a big fan of education system I

will tell you my personal story I just I

was born in India my parents we are used

to remind us about the value of

education and he used to tell us if you

have education you can do a lot of

things and I think that we followed his

preachings and we went to school and we

came to us and therefore my brothers are

in America and we all have done what our

parents wanted us to do by focusing on

education so education is what has made

us successful to this extent and same

thing I do tell my children I have two

kids I have a daughter and a son my

daughter went to Stanford my son went to

Berkeley and they're both engineers the

both have their own startup companies in

Silicon Valley so we have maintained

that tradition about focusing on

education and so I'm going to share with

you how what things I do and a personal

level and what I learned from

universities around the world number one

education system is very old and I must

tell you I'm very disappointed with the

changes happening so slowly in education

system we are still very

compartmentalized for political reasons

for how this Christian system was built

I am industrial and mechanical I am


I'm electrical and computer science all

these departments but design you know I

don't know 100 years ago that we need to

break those walls we need to make those

departments much more interactive much

more interdisciplinary nobody cares

about computer science and EE and

information service system when it comes

to the knowledge and I think we need to


missus to the teachers particularly

department heads and Dean's many

university vice chancellors and Dean's

and I am very very forceful in my

message to them that they must change

the system in terms of how education

system is built break those walls break

them make them more interconnected

education is no longer just four year

degree or go to IITs or be any

university and get a degree and you all

say that was education 50 years ago when

you get a degree and you work all your

life in mechanical electrical whatever

you studied now in the new world you

will need to learn technology all the

time the subjects will change very very

much so what programming language you

are learning today two three four years

down the road it will be useless you

need to learn new things so don't focus

too much on the subject focus on

learning yourself okay and focus on

building solution understand economy

understand society what good problems

are how Google and Facebook and Amazon's

are built they're not built on subjects

they are built on solving social

economic issues and I will share some of

those pioneers and they're there

thinking okay so make education and

lifelong learning don't just focus on

getting degree degree will may get you

interview in a company but men aren't

getting a job and you cannot keep a job

unless you you are you are learning all

the time okay

I can tell you Google where the Google

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