Judaism Explained: What do Jews believe? What are the basic beliefs of the Jewish faith?

by birtanpublished on July 9, 2020

Hey guys welcome to hip Hughes historyworld history edition we're gonna go getanother world religion under our beltstoday this time the very basics andhistory of Judaism so you can walkaround earth a little bit smarter andyou'll pass your exams how about that so

Why don't we go get ready to grow ourbrains together and go giddyup for theload right about nowall right guys some very basics aboutJudaism it's a rather minor religionthere's only about 02% of people on

Earth that consider themselves to be ofthe Jewish faith that's about 14 millionpeople and 42% of them today live in thecountry of Israel which you can see ison the eastern Mediterranean and I'mgoing to call that Canaan many times

Canaan there's the word right therebecause that's the ancient word thatrefers to the land that the Jewishpeople believed was promised to them andwhat they call the Torah the first fivebooks of the Old Testament we should get

Started off by saying that the reason weare studying a little bit about Judaismhere even though it's a very smallreligion in terms of numbers is becauseit's very influential not only in termsof kind of Western civilization and

Their outlook on God and such but reallyit is going to be the roots of not onlyChristianity but also Islam so the twobiggest religions on earth have theirroots in the history that we're going togo over in a moment

Now even though we're going to betalking about Canaan or Israel sometimescalled Palestine or ancient Palestineand again this is eastern Mediterraneanholy cross roads Batman I mean if you goto the West you're in Egypt and if you

Go into the East you're like inMesopotamia and Babylonian so this is atthe center crux of early civilizationsreally a trading crossroads at the endof the day but we have to start bysaying that Judaism or

Hebrew people does not originate inCanaan it actually originates in thecity of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia if youwant to watch a video in Mesopotamia youcan click in the description below andlearn all about Mesopotamia and another

Thing that we should probably mention isthat much of what I am going over comesfrom the first five books of the Bibleso in terms of historical accuracy andmaybe maybe not that's going to be up toyou the viewer so a lot of what we're

Talking about is what people believethat's what a religion is right it'stheir faith so whether it reallyhappened – really didn't we're going toleave that up to you the viewer todecide for themselves or do your own

Research but nevertheless if we go tothe city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamiathere's a guy around 2,000 BCE by thename of Abraham and the story in Genesisin the first five books of the Bible thefirst one is Genesis is that Abraham was

Contacted by God himself and that's thefirst kind of rule in Judaism andChristianity and Islam there's only oneGod and he goes where you go right andhe's ever knowing and ever watching he'severywhere it's not like many of the

Polytheistic religions of Mesopotamiawhere gods are location orientatedthey're polytheistic so that's the firstdefinition really of these three bigreligions in Judaism Christianity andIslam that it's monotheistic that

Everything derives and comes from oneGod there's no any other gods just oneand they're gonna call him in the Jewishfaith in Judaism Yahweh so instead ofGod I'll say Yahweh because that's whatthe word is and you should know what the

Word is but nevertheless Abraham makes adeal a covenant with God and why don'twe just listen to God go over yourcountry and your kindred and yourfather's house to the land that I willshow you I will make of you a great

Nation and I will bless you and makeyour name great that's the first thingGod says to Abraham it's a covenant it'sa deal that if you listen to me if youfollow my rules if you pray to me andwe're

Me and honor me that I'm going to giveyou really great land and yourdescendants are going to rule over thatgreat land that's the deal you do what Isay I give you this land which is goingto be Canaan which eventually we're

Going to call Israel which people alsorefer to as ancient Palestine and thatis at the root of Judaism it's acovenant it's a deal and Abraham istested there's the story of his sonremember he had two sons to begin with

And that's Ishmael and Isaac now Ishmaelwho is the son of Hagar who is Abraham'sslave is going to be the descendant ofthe people that are going to form Islamand of course Isaac is going to be thedescendant that continues with this

Covenant and eventually into Israel butin terms of testing the Covenant Godactually in the Old Testament asksAbraham to kill his son Isaac you got tokill your son Isaac to show how muchyou're going to listen to me and right

Before he kills them God's like psychall rightsays I'm an angry god I'm a jealous GodI'm also a merciful God I'm not going tohave you kill your son another sign ofthis covenant is in the Old Testament in

The Torah that it demands that sons ofthe Jewish faith are circumcised you cango google that if you don't know what itis but that is supposed to be the fleshsign that I am one of these people thathas made this deal with God now you have

To remember that Abraham dude was 75years old he didn't have any children soas part of this deal he's got to makebabies and that's what happened he madebabies and he leaves her he leavesMesopotamia with his new tribe with his

New people and he starts traveling tothe land of Canaan to Israel toPalestine and the story is is that formany years they wander trying to findtheir way eventually they find their waybut then they leave that area the

Descendants of Abraham because the landwas arid and dry there was supposedlyfamine and starvation and they wentacross the Red Sea to Egypt to settleand that's where we're going to leaveour story right now because at first

They were welcomed the Egyptians werelike hey Jewish peopleHebrews come on over nicehave you but eventually they're going tobecome slaves and there's going to haveto be a way for these slaves to get out

Of Egypt so when we take a look at thatright so now we're in Egypt the Hebrewtribe they are slaves in Egypt it'saround 1300 1200 BCE don't quote me guysbut the Pharaoh of Egypt at that pointdecided that he didn't want the Jewish

People around anymore he was feelingthreatened by these Hebrews andbasically what occurs is that there isone baby Moses he's put on the Nile byhis mother and they kicked the basketdown and eventually he's found by

Egyptian princess who raises him inluxury and eventually as Moses gets intoadulthood God's going to point to him tobe the leader of the Hebrew people tolead them out of Egypt so I guess whenGod asks you to do something if your

Moses you do it and Moses who was stillconnected with his Hebrew faith takesthe Jewish people and leads them intothe Sinai Peninsula leads his peopleinto the desert heading back towards theland they call Israel where they're

Supposed to go make their kingdom and wehaven't mentioned this but in the Jewishfaith there is a belief that one day amessiah will come and unite the Jewishpeople in the kingdom of Israel and thisMessiah will rule over Israel and create

Peace on earth and this is thedifferentiation they have withchristians christians believe thatMessiah was in Jesus Christ Jewishpeople say no there was no UnitedKingdom with peace on earth so he was a

Prophet he was not the Messiah and ofcourse there's differing beliefs amongdifferent Jews about Jesus but that'sthe basic plot if you're a Jewish personyou believe that Jesus was a greatprophet but he was not the Messiah that

Was mentioned in the Old TestamentJewish people are still waiting for thatMessiah to come to bring peace to earthbut I get off track because somethinghappened when Moses was leading hispeople according to the Old Testament in

The Sinai Peninsulathere's Mount Sinai and Moses decided togo up and pray andand he finds these two huge tablets andthey're very important because they'regoing to make the formation of the ten

Commandments which is really at the rootnot only of the Jewish faith but of theChristian faith of the Islamic faith ina sense and of Western civilization in asense so we should probably saysomething about the Ten Commandments and

This is part of that covenant you followthese Ten Commandments and I'll give youthe kingdom I'll give you peace on earthright I am a jealous God I'm a mean Godbut I'm a merciful God I'll give youstuff if you do what I say so here are

The Ten Commandments and if you'reJewish or if you're Christian youprobably should be checking these off asI go through them now the first fourdeal with your relationship with thisone God and the other six deal with your

Relationships with other people asyou're walking around on earth so we cansee the first one is I'm a jealous Godno other gods before me that's numberone you don't pray to any other godsnumber two is no graven image er II

There should be no representation of anyidols that anybody's praying to any typeof symbols or anything like that becauseGod's a jealous god he doesn't want youwearing those things or praying to otherthings because the God is not a physical

According to monotheism in the Jewishfaith the Christian faith and theIslamic faith but it's a spiritual realmso there should be no images gravenimages of this one God number three youcan check this off if you if you believe

You deserve so but there should be nouse of God's name in vain and numberfour is to keep the Sabbath holy nowChristians many people might have beChristians out there that's Sunday butfor Jewish people that is sunset from

Friday until Saturday evening that's theday you're not supposed to work you'rejust supposed to worship and pray to Godthere's a lot of tradition in the Jewishfaith there's a lot of symbology a lotof lighting of candles a lot of

Recitation that is meant to keep thatcovenant to worship that one God so thatone God will keep rewarding you that'sthe main idea now the other six dealwith how you deal with other peoplenumber size is honor your mother and

Father so if your spatting with your momand dad you're giving them grief you'rebreaking the covenant with God that'snot a good thingnumber six is pretty simple thou shaltnot kill number seven thou shalt not

Commit adulteryI guess youGoogle that no don't Google that number8 is going to be thou shalt not stealthat's pretty straightforwardnumber 9 is they shall not bear false

Witness against my neighbor and number10 is I shall not covet anything of myneighbor's I shall want anything justbecause my neighbor has it right so thatwhole thing keep up with the Joneses notso good according to the 10 commandments

But that is the covenant that the Hebrewpeople make with God that Moses bringsthese 10 commandments down from MountSinai and says to the people we need tofollow these Ten Commandments now thestory after that is that Moses and the

Hebrew people wander the desert for likeforty years before they eventually aregoing to settle in the land they callIsrael ancient palace ID you can see iton the map right there and because thatland is so geographically not so nice

They're going to quite quicklybegin to expand their Kingdom now therewere twelve tribes of the Hebrew peoplethe largest of those tribe is the tribeof Judah so that is where we get thename Jewish but there were 12 tribes and

If you look at the old Bible there'snumerous judges that are brought up tounite the tribes one of the more famousone is actually a woman Deborah but weshould mention that like other faithswomen were seen as below men in a sense

They're basically kept underneath men todeal with the house stuff and theraising of the kids in the making of thebabies and such like that of coursewe're not talking about modern timesthere's many different modern

Interpretations but of course in termsof a paradigm of how civilization formswomen are definitely not at theforefront and that's not just in Judaismand like we've mentioned these judgesare going to be able to unite the

Hebrews the twelve tribes including thelargest ones which are the Jewish peoplewhich is going to create the Kingdom ofIsrael there was a Kingdom of Israel I'mtelling you there was but it's not goingto be around for very long I'm going to

Get the kingdom of this roomso Abraham made a deal with Yahweh andGod made him the promise that hisdescendants would rule over this newkingdom the kingdom of Israel and about1020 BCE – around 922 BCE that actually

Occurs the Kingdom of Israel is going tobe in that Canaan land and three kingsare going to rule over it andhistorically this is true there is Saulthere is Saul son-in-law David and thenthere's Solomon these are the three

Kings of Israel and it was David whichreally is going to take Jerusalem andJerusalem is going to be a veryimportant city in Israel now we also ofcourse have Solomon and one of Solomon'sgreat accomplishments is that he's going

To build Solomon's Temple and Solomon'sTemple is which is going to hold if youwatch Raiders of the Lost Ark the Ark ofthe Covenant which keeps in the twotablets of the Ten Commandments which isthe representation of this covenant

Between men and God on earth how aboutthat should go watch Raiders of the LostArk it's pretty awesomenow I don't want to give away the goosehere but Solomon's Temple it's notstanding today that's because it's going

To be burned down about 400 years afterit was built and the building ofSolomon's Temple is going to divide theKingdom of Israel there were high taxesthere was forced labor people aren'thappy it's not so good so we're going to

Get two kingdoms in the North theKingdom of Israel and the South thekingdom of Judah and it's that disunitythat weakness that eventually is goingto lead to their invasion and theirconquering so from about 922 BC to about

738 BCE we have these two kingdoms thatare a little bit vulnerable and I hearsome wolves and they're coming forIsraelso around 783 BCE there's a new empirethere called the Assyrians and they're

Starting to look at Israel with somegreedy eyesso both the Kingdom of Israel and thekingdom of Judah began paying tribute toAssyria around 783 BCE around 725 BCEthe Assyrians didn't think that was

Enough so they're going to have thissiege at Samara which is the capital ofIsrael and that's going to be successfuland the Israeli Kingdom is going to fallnow the kingdom of Judah is going tolast about another 150 years but around

600 BCE they're going to fall to theAssyrians as wellnow the Assyrian Empire is quickly goingto be evaporated by the BabylonianEmpire and around 586 BCE thatBabylonian Empire is going to capture

Jerusalem and they're going to take downthe temple at Solomon which housed theArk of the Covenant Raiders of the LostArk I'm telling you you should watch itand they're also going to take theJewish people the Hebrew people and

They're going to exile them to Babylonand in the Bible it says that theprophet Ezekiel is supposed to keep theJewish faith alive as this exile occursnow the Exile is not going to lastforever around 539 BCE there's going to

Be a new king in town this time it's thePersian king Cyrus the Great and Cyrusthe Great is going to give permissionfor about 40,000 of those exiled toreturn to Jerusalem to rebuild theTemple of Solomon and eventually that's

Going to be destroyed again but it is atthat Second Temple of Solomon where weget that tradition of Hanukah thatcalled the Maccabee in revolt and theidea was that the Jewish people were inthis Temple of Solomon and they only had

Enough oil for their candles for a daybut somehow the magic oil lasted foreight days and that's where you get themenorah with eight candles each onerepresents a day and there's a magiccandle they all light the other candles

With but that's about it guys forJudaism we got the very basic beliefsdown there's one god it's monotheisticthey believe there's a special covenantwiththey're one God and they will be

Rewarded eventually with a messiah thatreturns to rule over Israel and bringspeace to earth that's the main idea andthe last thing I'll say guys is holysmokes we've only scraped the surfacelike that much you only don't like that

Much or so much more that you shouldprobably find outso go research go read go grow yourbrain on your own and if you want toknow a little bit more about theconflict that becomes known as the

Arab-israeli conflict we have a videofor you right there it's down in thedescription below so if you feel like ityou can go get her done – hope yourbrains a little bit bigger I hope whenyou're walking around you know what

You're talking about and I hope youalways remember where attention goesenergy flows we'll see you guys nexttime get your press my buttonsyou

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