James II And The Finish Of The Stuarts | Recreation Of Kings | Timeline

published on July 2, 2020


the Stewart's a bloody rain is an

evocation of the extraordinary error

when these four Stuart Kings lived

through turbulent times

Catholic versus Protestant

Parliament against King

the English Civil War Europe torn apart

by religious conflict the plague the

Great Fire of London and finally a

Catholic King fled his country and his



James ii the catholic king of a

Protestant country was a disaster

waiting to happen

the Stewart's vein had begun with James

the first then Charles the first their

belief in the Divine Right of Kings

ultimately led to their downfall at the

restoration charles ii became a popular

if outrageous monarchy the kingdom

remains simmering with catholic versus

protestant sentiment king james ii was a

last desperate attempt at a Stuart

monarchy I think history is very tough

on James a second he was a very brave

headstrong figure a very good soldier a

very good Admiral but unfortunately

being so pigheaded lee roman catholic

was the undoing of him he goes on an

all-out very rapid process of catharsis

a ssin this completely wrecks the

popular basis of his power didn't join

in his first year he was in some ways a

very competent person but he threw it

away for no particular reason but it was

absolutely extraordinary james ii just

thought he was going to do his bit as a

catholic king and it went spectacularly



king charles ii died on the 6th of

February 1685 he had ruled over England

Wales Scotland and Ireland for court of

a century following the restoration of

the monarchy after the collapse of

Oliver Cromwell's Common Wealth Charles

are converted to the Catholic faith on

his deathbed and he will be succeeded by

his younger brother King James ii a man

who'd been catholic for nearly two

decades in the country that was now

officially protestant this was a grave

concern james ii Swain would not last



in this series of examine the rain of

the fall Stuart monix to the lives of

the wind family who lived here a gwydyr

castle in north wales the winds owned

hundreds of acres of land surrounding

the castle and they prospered enormously

during the Stuart era it all began with

John Wynn who inherited the winners date

in 1518 during the reign of the earliest

Stuart monarch King James the first John

would be knighted and the family would

be honoured with the title of baronet

during King Charles the first rain grey

day was overseen by John winds son Sir

Owen and seviche it was at this point

that the connection between the wind

family and the ruling Stuart dynasty was

strongest of all a cemented win was a

close personal friend of King Charles

the first but then civil war broke out

and the King was beheaded

Sir Richard win never recovered and died

just a few months after he witnessed his

friends and King being publicly executed

sir Owen wing had to care for the estate

with his wife Lady Grace during the

challenging period of Oliver Cromwell's

war with the restoration of the monarchy

and the return of King Charles a second

the winds would prosper once again this

time with sir Owen son Sir Richard win

the younger back in the historic oil

court however Sir Richard when the

younger had no male heirs leaning the

estate pass to his daughter Mary known

to everyone as Molly

along with her grandmother Lady Grace it

was her job to maintain the win estate

in the new era of the restoration

they do Sarah dies of the play in 1671

she's very young and then in 1674 at the

age of 39

Sir Richard dies as well so it's too

young and that means that they only have

one child that's the lovely Lady Mary

and at the age of 17 she is suddenly the

heiress of a vast estate and the person

who's who becomes the sort of grand

choreographer of all of this is her

grandmother Lady Grace when who survives

as the matriarch this powerful figure of

the past and she brokers marriage deal

after marriage deal until she finds the

one that is acceptable and the one

that's acceptable turns out to be the

young Lord Willoughby dara'a being

Robert Bharti

malee married Robert Bertie in 1678

later the Duke of Ancaster a member of

parliament the bow in that see that the

wind family had gained during the reign

of King James the first could not be

transferred to the female line and so

that was given to a junior branch of the

wind family and the birches acquired the

griddy of state from that moment the

direct connection of the winds to the

land and the landscape and the people of

North Wales stops because it becomes a

secondary of stage it becomes an

additional part of the Bulova Darris be

Empire which was in his self quite huge

they were a Lincolnshire family based at

Grim's Thorpe Castle all world madera's

B goes on to become the Earl and then

the Duke of Ancaster and castithan so he

becomes very important the wind family

one so powerful was now losing influence

and status and so were the Stewart's

for most of his life king james ii had

never expected to become king he'd been

born at James's Palace in London in 1633

the second son of King Charles the first

and his wife henrietta maria james held

the title of the duke of york from birth

during the English Civil War had been

confined by Parliament his birthplace to

James's Palace while his father fought a

losing battle with the Royalists forces

at the age of 15 James managed to sneak

away from his confines disguised as a

woman and made it all the way to the

Hague in the Netherlands continental

Europe we where James would spend much

of his life when his father was executed

in 1649 when James was only 16 his elder

brother was proclaimed king by the war

lists and the parliaments of Scotland

and Ireland

Charles was even crowned in Scotland in

1651 but the Stewart family was unable

to reclaim England and eventually Oliver

Cromwell prevailed becoming the

undisputed ruler of a new Commonwealth


Charles and his brother James sought

exile in France their mother's homeland

and it was joined this time aboard that

James was exposed to the beliefs and the

ceremonies of the Catholic religion as

time went by he was drawn to that faith

with greater and greater conviction

James even served in the French army but

France chose to ally itself with Oliver

Cromwell the Stewart family made the

alliance with Spain as a result and

James switched over to the Spanish

forces and battled his previous French


James learnt to be a soldier and he'd

fought first for the French and then for

the Spanish he'd fought for the French

until he was driven out of the French

army by the treaty by which cromwell

allied with France against Spain but he

just flipped over and went and fought

for thee for the Spanish side and in

fact in the last of the great battles of

the New Model Army back to the Jews up

in France and Belgium the English armies

of Cromwell while other people fight

against them was James he's on the


James was considered a brave fighter and

was on the brink of accepting the rank

of Admiral in the Spanish Navy when the

collapse of Cromwell's protectors in

England rapidly changed those Jewish

prospects James declines the Spanish

offer within months his brother would

reclaim the English throne James

returned to London and was soon

appointed Lord High Admiral of the Navy

he became one of his brother's closest

advisors and was widely praised for his

tireless efforts to extinguish the Great

Fire of London but in private his

religious allegiances were shifting his

wife Anne Hyde had converted to the

Catholic religion almost as soon as the

couple had returned to London by the

late 1660s James had converted as well

we now know that James was formally

received the Catholic Church in 1660


he continues to attend Protestant

services for a few years but news about

his is going even privately to Catholic

Mass Catholic confessors and so on was

was leaking out and by 1676 James comes

out so then you have a crisis that the

heir to the throne is going to be a

Catholic therefore there is a huge

political campaign to prevent it well I

think history is very tough on James a

second we tend to forget all about him

except the disaster of his three years

as a king he was a very brave headstrong

figure he was a very good soldier a very

good Admiral and had fought bravely and

he had a lot of qualities but

unfortunately being so pigheaded lee

roman catholic was the undoing of him


1673 was a critical year in the life of

the future king james a second his first

wife arne hired who converted to the

Catholic faith long before him died in

1671 and James was about to marry his

second wife Mary of Modena 1673 was also

the year of the test act this was a

penal law voted in by Parliament and it

required all civil and military

officials to take an oath that declared

their allegiance to the Anglican Church

James was in an impossible position

he couldn't betray his principles and

make such an oath he refused resigned as

Lord High Admiral well there have been

rumors of bounding that he converted to

the Catholic faith and he was now

married to a Catholic bride from Italy

those rumors now seemed confirmed by

James refused to make that oath the

quiet brother test Act

the difficulty with James the second was

every one year he was Catholic it was

not something he could hide and not

something he wanted to hide either I

mean obviously when push came to shove

they had the test act he had to just

resign his commission as Admiral and

that meant he was okay because he didn't

have to do any signing he didn't have to

do anything the fact that James is elder

brother King Charles ii had no

legitimate heirs with his wife Catherine

of Braganza that meant James was next in

line for the throne he became the focus

of numerous conspiracy theories many

suspected they were plots to assassinate

Charles replacing with James

anti-catholic sentiment rose again

across the country fairly soon after the

test acts and the sheer scale of the

number of people who resigned which took

people by surprise their Nydia they

would have so many people though secret

Catholics and the great anxiety of what

will happen if a Catholic does become

King you begin to get people who started

to claim that the wall of conspiracy are

the top of government to assassinate

Charles to hasten James his accession to

the throne that it's called the Pope

each plot and the claim that there were

there were a large number of people who

were conspiring to assassinate the king

and that if James didn't know about it

he was turning a blind eye to it and in

any case he was the beneficiary of what

they were doing on the way to prevent

the assassination of the king on the

succession with a Catholic ruler who was

to pass an act that would that mean that

the Catholics couldn't couldn't benefit

from the assassination and if there was

a law which prevented the Catholic

successor there's no point in killing

the existing king particularly one who

had been very lenient you know his

attitude to the Catholic population


to soothe the worried public king

charles ii arranged for James's daughter

Mary to marry the Protestant William of

Orange James will Upton Lee consented to

the match the marrying of William of

Orange who was a Royal British blood and

therefore had a potential claim to

James's elder daughter gave her a

potential focus now for those who had

just not prepared to tolerate a Catholic

King this was not enough however to

relieve the growing hysteria in the

country and in Parliament in 1679 the

exclusion bill was introduced into the

House of Commons if passed it would have

prevented James some inheriting the

throne because he was Catholic the

exclusion bill was also having an impact

at Whittier castle malli Winn had

married or bertie Lord Willoughby Darris

be the previous year he had tried

unsuccessfully for election to

Parliament Malley women her grandmother

Lady Grace eagerly await correspondence

from him as unrest spreads across the

country at the thought of King Charles

second brother James becoming the first

Catholic monarch

well lady my lady thank you to portal

but the no others that could deliver

your letters grandmama the years on tell

have not rendered him past use i cannot

conceive of word here without him but

surely there are others who can share

his burden Master Williams has a son a

boy he is 19 how fares your husband is

Robert recovered from his disappointment

he resolves to stand again in the next

election though when that will be

the exclusionists and watching the

ascendancy even if the bill passes

through the Commons it will fail in the

law practice the Duke of York will be

king child fool doe he be not in my time

I pray the Duke not abide by his

conscience his principles principles are

an hour admired thing I wanted to though

the exclusionist mind can the law alter

what God has settled if Parliament can

choose itself a king why not to tenant

his Lord that pulls at society's very

order I fear

I suppose master Williams can learn the

duties of the gatekeeper they grow so

fast the young let us see if we can air

pace towel and tell him of his new


the bill bitterly divided the Commons

indeed parts of the modern British

parliamentary system can be set a date

from this dispute those who backs the

exclusion bill became known as the Whigs

those against became known as the

tourists the bill was finally defeated

in 1681 when it's rejected by the House

of Lords

clearly the failure exclusion and the

revenge which is taken by the regime in

dismissing so many prominent supporters

occlusion from the abolition will

produce acid always housing history you

know some people who overreact and think

the the only solution is to assassinate

Charles and James there's a lot of talk

there's not talk clear how much action

there is the plan to intercept him as he

returns to London and the race is in

Newmarket but he facts may return early

and so the plot hadn't matured but when

you have plots there are always people

in a new trade them because you can't

make a plot work without a lot of people

knowing and if a lot of people know it's

increasingly likely somebody will know

who will betray it and that's what


the booked assassination attempt on the

Stuart brothers in 1683 provoked a wave

of sympathy for James several with

opponents were implicated and James's

position was strengthened further as a

result of their fall the Catholic Duke

of York would indeed be king


King James ii was crowned on April the

23rd 1685 was almost immediately he

faced a rebellion from his own nephew

the Duke of Monmouth Monmouth was the

eldest illegitimate son of King Charles

a second he proclaimed himself the true

king in Lyme Regis in Dorset and his

Monmouth rebellion attempted to

overthrow King James a second here at

Budhia the situation was followed

especially closely because Molly's

husband or what Bertie was a captain

I was now fighting on behalf of King

James in the attempt to swiftly crush

the rebellion

it gives me great joy dear husband to

hear of your efforts in London and the

Commons on behalf of our new king

there is great rejoicing here at Grimm's

Thorpe as well the Sunday gone the

parson even read from the pulpit his

Majesty's words which I thought very


and noted well I shall make it my

endeavour to preserve this government

both in church and state as it is by law

established as I shall never depart from

the rights and prerogative of the crown

so I shall never invade any man's

property the parson gave it much import

the word of a king being more secure by

far than any mutable law

what would it be Daris B is holding

office under James a second but also

interestingly he's captain of a troop of

horse under King James fighting at the

Battle of settimana 1685 so against the

Duke of Monmouth in the Monmouth

rebellion that's very interesting the

Monmouth rebellion was quickly dealt

with House was another rebellion in

Scotland that occurred at the same time

known as argyles rising led by the Earl

of Argyll these two rebellions had been

coordinated together

neither of them were able to drum up

enough volunteers in the end both the

Duke of Monmouth and the Earl of Argyll

were captured and executed the

rebellions were put down with ease but

they deepened James's insecurities he

strengthened his army and put loyal men

in charge of the regiment's this might

have eased his worries but the actions

caused alarming Parliament a standing

army of such size was not a tradition

and many of the chosen commanders were


this placed Molly's husband your

Willoughby's position as captain under

threat are you in there boy forgive me

milady thought it was young Williams

I could have these chambers readied whoa

no well perhaps just the fire Tao yes


well you not sit a moment what I know

you did so with my grandmother from time

to time perhaps in her memory

and how is Master Williams proving tardy

often the need of a bath I can see why

you and my grandmom are got on so you

were a soldier were you not for the

martyred King we have always been loyal

servants to the crownless family my

husband's likewise he's been turned out

of his employment as captain the king is

displeased with the militia he desires a

standing army with officers he can trust

though Robert led a troop of horse

against Monmouth in 85 he is not of the

khopesh faith nor his brothers the king

has cleared the army of our whole family

I'm sorry

m'lady they were only ever loyal but our

hope for advance now seems quite remote

the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 has seemed

like a last desperate attempt to return

a catholic mana to the throne but now

with king james ii the seemingly

impossible had happened the new king's

royal court was soon dominated by

catholics a representative from Rome was

welcomed for the first time to the days

of Mary the first over a century before

in May 16 86 James sort of ruling from

the courts to show he had the power to

dispense with Acts of Parliament he

fired judges who disagreed with him the

following year he made a new declaration

of indulgence announcing religious

toleration including for the English

Catholic minority and all did it be read

for every pulpit in the land the man has

thought to be the instigator of the

declaration of indulgence was William

Penn the founder of Pennsylvania and

member of a new religious movement that

had arisen during Stuart rule Quakerism

pen went on a tour of the country to

promote James's declaration of

indulgence but it was fiercely resisted

by the Anglican clergy

James overplayed his hand he wants to

give Catholics a lot of power so they

can demonstrate they can use it

responsibly so they can show they could

be Catholics who will live in peace with

their Protestant neighbors so he goes on

an all-out very rapid process of

Catholicism of local government of the

civil service he's determined to reverse

the penal laws he's got to find people

who will do his bidding who are

Protestant and so the Anglican

establishment are pushed aside and lots

of Quakers and Presbyterians and others

are pressed into service to be nominated

for Parliament he changes the conditions

of elections in towns so that the town

councils will elect MPs are not the

general electorate he narrows the

franchise and then of course he himself

nominates the people who will be found

councillors is an extraordinary

extraordinary thing and he calls in

every single existing MP one by one and

asks them if they will support the

repeal of the penal rules and they test

acts and they all say no so he has to go

to these even more desperate lands and

this this completely wrecks the popular

base of his pouted enjoyed in his first


the Archbishop of Canterbury along with

six other bishops defy the king's orders

the seven bishops as they were known

soon arrested taken to the Tower of

London but their acts of resistance

galvanized the public in an unexpected

manner the bishops were eventually

acquitted at their trial and this meant

jubilant scenes up and domination

embarrassing the king with each passing

month of his reign James seemed to mimic

and exceed the example of his executed

father more and more his attempts to

rule as an absolute monarch or being

fiercely resisted his reign that has

started with enthusiasm general goodwill

was coming to a crashing end


I think he believed it was his duty as a

Catholic prince to push forward the

Catholic agenda in this country he

strayed into parts of life that were

very threatening to the establishment he

got involved in the election of fellows

at Moreland College Oxford and it became

a cause celeb with people having very

important influential people being put

into prison because they disagreed with

him and at the end of the day I think he

thought his powers as a monarch were

greater than they were he hadn't taken

on board the lessons of the civil wars

the fact that the Stewart's weren't able

to just behave as they wished

on the 10th of June 1688 King James and

his wife Mary of Modena had a son

according to the rules of primogeniture

this child was due to inherit the throne

but James already had two daughters from

his first marriage Mary Ann Ann and

they'd been raised Protestant according

to the wishes of King Charles a second

the people just about tolerated James's

pro-catholic rule because they knew his

only possible successors for his

Protestant daughters but now with the

baby there was a real threat of a

permanent Catholic dynasty and to many

in the church and across the country

this was simply unacceptable and there's

another pretty intriguing twist to this

story the child born to King James 2nd

and Mary of Modena was rumored to be an

imposter the story went that the royal

baby was stillborn and another child was

smuggled in to replace him and ensure

the Catholic succession

when James seconds second wife married

Madonna had a son even that wasn't

enough I mean clearly that boy should

have been king in the the law of

succession but the Protestant

establishment managed to say that their

baby had been smuggled in in a bedpan it

wasn't really the rightful heir to the

throne and there was a ready-made in

William and Mary and their line

King James ii knew he had a problem on

his hands he published testimonies of

numerous witnesses who be present at the

birth of his son he also made plans to

pack the next parliament with his

supporters and cement his grip on power

but their news reached him of a fresh

challenge to his authority William of

Orange the husband of James's Protestant

daughter Mary was coming to England with

an invasion Air Force what became known

as the Glorious Revolution bigger they

persuaded William and Mary that they

were being cut out of their lawful

rights by this tender Charter than they

should come to England to insist on

their rights to a full public inquiry

into legitimate C of the new Prince of

Wales and William is willing to do that

because William is fighting an all-out

war goes through the 14th and he

desperately wants English resources he

was English troops and above all English


now the contender was William who saw

England is a very very useful ally

particularly its wealth and its Navy in

his perpetual battle against louis xiv

france so that's why he was prepared to

do it it wasn't out of any great pride

or whatever it was purely practical he

wanted to have the english on side

against france in the great struggle

against the catholic king


William of Orange certainly had pedigree

he'd been involved in several battles

with a Catholic King of France and he

was seen across U of us storage defender

of the Protestant faith his Armada of

463 ships carried fifteen thousand

fighting men across the channel

William landed his forces at Torbay on

the 5th of November 1688 83 years after

Guy Fawkes his attempt to end the rule

of Stuart Kings had failed another

attempt on another King James was about

to begin and this time it wasn't going

to fail


the Glorious Revolution is sometimes

known as the bloodless revolution well

that's not literally the case it

certainly was very low on cash days when

William oranges forces arrived on the

English coast the army of King James ii

that they were up against was twice the

size but william knew he had support

among the English and his strategy was

perfect he gathered in the finances

joins preparations for the war to pay

his soldiers for three months in advance

meaning they were happy to delay any

battle William's patience paid off as

James's troops soon started to defect an

anti-catholic riots spread across the

land the brief reign of james ii was

collapsing and he knew it

Lord Willoughby dara'a be advised his

wife Molly to seek refuge in the

relative safety of brick a soul a

support for William of Orange was



no running a little birth what did I say

how long will my lady and the children

be in residence as long as my husband

deems it necessary for our safety

eternal insurrection is it how do you

perceive their local sentiment the King

jailed how Lord Bishop some might mark

that in his favor others less but do you

detect any general inclination he ought

not to have done it my lady my husband

is for the Duke of Orange he marches on

York with his brothers and his uncle

stays at Port so their family can claim

loyalty should the enterprise go awry

but what then have Robert and they let

us come I shall have them brought at

once day or night


James's real problem lies in the fact

that he's relying on certain loyalties

that are no longer intact his own

children the two daughters Mary and Ann

have been persuaded to put their

Protestantism above their duties as

daughters and this of course is a

devastating blow to James when he finds

this out and also some of his finest

generals have made it clear that they

will fight against the king rather than

for him I'm including John Churchill who

becomes the first to Cumorah who had

been really the instrument who had

defeated Monmouth at the Battle of

Sedgemoor three years earlier maybe it

was because he was a Protestant he

couldn't bear to help a Catholic but

James was correct to say that he had

taken him from an obscure pageboy given

him a commission and helped him on his

way and now this young brilliant

commander was fighting against him when

william arrives James's commanders are

career mercenaries they're not Catholics

they do what mercenaries always do they

make a calculation on whether they think

they're going to win and James is having

some sort of nervous breakdown

he has incessant nosebleeds which are

clearly hypertension

he's clearly behaving irrationally and I

think the professional soldiers like

John Churchill are the future Duke of

Marlborough they look at their

commander-in-chief and they think this

is not a guy I want to serve with to

have your daughter's side against you in

a matter really of life and death and of

your dynasty's future and to have those

who you've made from nothing into people

of great substance that it must have

been devastating on a personal level but

there was always the thought during his

remaining years that well look what

happened to Charles a second here come

back against the odds so we know it

never happened but I there were a lot of

people in England who were playing a

double game communicating with James in

secret just in case he did come back

because they didn't want to end up being



they've taken York the northern nobles

are declaring for William the King

marches west to meet the prince with

40,000 men though Robert says that

number is continually diminished whole

armies are abandoning the Kings cause

day by day Prince William's army grows

all seems to be happening with grace

beam m'lady

well Robert is very hopeful


unwilling to make the compromises that

might have saved his reign James

weathered himself to flee the country he

ordered his unreliable army to disband

his wife and baby son left for France in

early December and when it came his turn

to follow James fetch Utley dumped the

Great Seal in the Thames without it no

lawful Parliament could be called James

fled to France to join his family and

William let him go it is done the King

has fled to France the Queen and the

Prince of Wales – with scarce a battle

or bloodshed will we be making the

arrangements for your return grim stop

Michele halls are well these these are

much after chasing the young ones they

have been most contented here as Hawaii

King James escaped to France was

actually a total farce the yacht that

was meant to take him across the channel

was boarded by English fishermen they'd

no idea who he was they thought he was a

Jesuit spy he was kept prisoner for a

week before the misunderstanding was

rectified and he was even returned to

London to Williams intense rage he's

brought back by some fishermen in

Faversham so he has to be allowed to

escape a second time and this time you

know the roads are kept clear and and

the always odd under no no circumstance

he's find it he gets into france and

louie xiv

who takes them in rather startled at

this unexpected defeat he's experienced

and sets them up with his own court of

science a man near paris


within a matter of weeks Parliament

declared that James had abdicated the

throne and left it vacant William and

Mary were declared joint monix just as a

promise of a stable succession have been

so important to the elevation of James's

Sikh to the throne as James the first in

1603 so it was the peace and security

embodied by William and Mary that

ultimately secured that crown for them

I always view 1688 and James a seconds

exile as the defining moment of the

change that started with the outbreak of

civil war in 1642 where really the the

status of the crown is subjugated to

that of parliament and it's James

because of his three years of intensely

unintelligent prejudice rule he brings

it to a head finally so that the British

Parliament gets the upper hand from then



James did not give up he was planning an

attempt to reclaim the throne just as

his elder brother Charles have done with

the help of the French he landed in

Ireland and raised an army to seize back

the throne but he was defeated by

William at the Battle of the Boyne in

1690 James fled never to return to

England I don't think James ii was a

natural quitter

it was because of the overwhelming

evidence that it was over he just

misjudged the central tenets of the

Protestant establishment in England

particularly when they looked overseas

to France and so what louis xiv was

doing protestants treating them with

savagery their people being broken on

the wheel literally broken on a wagon

wheel or being executed in other ways or

being branded as being protestants and

it was so close geographically and that

the thought that it might come across

the channel to england meant that there

was absolutely no way that what looked

suspiciously like catholic absolutism

could be tolerated by James's people

James died in exile in 1701 convinced

he'd lost his throne because God

punished him for his adultery his

remains were destroyed during the French

Revolution and so to his memoirs meaning

that they don't have an awful lot of his

perspective and we've got rather a lot

of the opinions of his enemies James's

descendants made attempts to get that

phone back his son the reported imposter

James Francis Edward became known as the

Old Pretender he started a rebellion in

1715 the Jacobite rising and tried to

restore exile Stuart dynasty he failed

there was another attempt in 1719 with

Spanish support but it was just as

ineffective then in 1745 King James a

second grandson Bonnie Prince Charlie

made one final shot at the crown but the

country had moved on king james ii was

the last stuart king


the winds span the whole rise and fall

of the Stewart's Sir John wing is

knighted in 1606 three years after James

the first came to the throne one of the

very first baronet's Charles the first

served loyally by Sir Richard win 2nd

baronet the 4th baronet Richard when the

younger was Chamberlain to the Queen of

Charles a second the brief reign of

James second followed by the Glorious

Revolution in 1688 and then in 1689 Lady

Mary win the last of the wings dies

wadiya castles glory has also come to an





those four Stuart men who ruled England

Wales Ireland Scotland each wrestled

with similar problems the scope the

nature of government was contested at

this time as it never was before it made

their era divisive often bloody but the

reigns of the Stuart kings saw the

beginnings of the modern British state

the unification of England and Scotland

the last death battles of absolute

monarchy and the rise of Parliament as a

dominant power in the



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