How did the Ottomans overcome a Civil War? History of the Ottoman Empire (1400 – 1500)

published on July 17, 2020

the start of the 15th century in the Ottoman Empire marked the final years of bayazid the First's reign as Sultan in 1400 major tensions began to rise between the ottoman leader in the Terkel mongol warlord by the name of timur

This once cold-war reached a heated climax in 1402 at the Battle of Ankara while on his way back through Anatolia to confront the threat of his powerful rival Bayezid was caught off guard by Timur and his troops as they besieged

The city of Ankara with holding the only source of water for the Ottoman troops and forcing them to engage in battle by the end of the conflict timur's army prevailed while Bayezid and his sons attempted to make an escape

Bayezid himself and two of his sons Musa and Mustafa chalabi were captured by Timur though the rest were successful in their getaway Musa was released in 1403 and Mustafa was held in Samarkand until the death of temir in 1405 at which

Point he went into hiding within the territories of some of his allies less fortunately BAE's it had passed away shortly after he was taken into custody it is debated whether he was treated well by Timur and his men or not but

Either way this was the end of the fourth Ottoman Sultans rule after BAE's its downfall the leadership of the empire was thrown into complete turmoil the remaining sons of the late Sultan now sparked a decade-long Civil War

Referred to as the Ottoman interregnum Timur had confirmed Mehmed Chalabi as the new Sultan before he had passed but isa Musa and Suleyman were unhappy with this decision the brothers all felt that they

Themselves were entitled to the Ottoman throne and therefore did not recognize mehmed's Authority Suleyman had established his capital in Edirne formerly known as Adrianople and extended his power throughout all of

Thrace and the southeastern reign of Europe stretching down to northern Greece Mehmed centered his control in the city of Amasya meanwhile ISA and Musa fought for control over Bursa eventually leading to ISA obtaining

Dominion this rise of power incited a new conflict between ISA and Mehmed and after multiple defeats ISA sought refuge in Constantinople as Mehmed now took command of Bursa not long later another battle between the brothers in suit at

Coracii now sending ISA fleeing to Karim on it is said that ISA was later killed after being spotted in a public bath by order of Mehmed Suleyman who had backed he said during the strife with Mehmed now went on to successfully capture

Bursa and later Ankara from the previously victorious brother for the next few years an alliance formed and flourished between Mehmed and Musa the latter being sent across the Black Sea to serve as

Sultan to the European part of the Empire Suleyman touted in alliance with manuel ii palaiologos and eventually won over the serbs by the end of the battle of kozma daeun in 1410 during this battle

Musa was defeated by Suleyman though the tide would shortly turn once again due to apparent temperamental issues Suleyman found himself rapidly losing allies and support taking advantage of the defections and abandonment on his

Brothers side Musa found triumph at Eden in 1411 Suleyman attempted to escape into byzantine protection but was murdered on his way leaving Musa and Mehmed as Co Sultan's of the Ottoman Empire

Clearly unhappy about the Byzantine emperors loyalty to Suleyman Musa decided to lay siege to Constantinople as retaliation Emperor Manuel in turn requested assistance from Mehmed who made multiple attempts to defend him

In a blatant breach of the agreement made with Musa unable to stay in Constantinople for long though Mehmed had to return to his own territory in order to deal with a mutiny before looking to the Serbian autocrat Stefan

Lazarevich for help now returning to face his brother with new strength Mehmed and his army met with Musa and his forces at Shimer loo resulting in a defeat for Musa and his later capture and ardor finally freed of the constant

Looming Menace of his brothers attempts to seize his power Mehmed Shah Levy became Sultan Mehmed the first accepting complete sovereignty over the empire and uniting those who had been divided during the long-running

Civil war throughout the rest of his reign Mehmed focused on consolidating power across both Anatolia and the European region he was faced with several challenges along the way including a

Dispute with Mustafa his remaining brother who had finally come out of hiding a theology and revolutionary by the name of Sheikh bedridden also posed a threat to mehmed's Authority sparking a discord that would last for years

Until the agitator was finally captured and hanged mehmed's tumultuous rule finally came to an end with his death in 1421 leaving control of the empire to his son Murad ii during the start of Murad's

Time as sultan manuel ii palaiologos made a deal with mustafa chalabi to free him from exile he had been forced into before muhammad the firsts death the byzantine emperor recognized mustafa as the true heir to what had once been

Phased the first throne but he only found success for a short while before Murad finally ended mustapha's campaign with his execution attention was now directed toward punishing the Byzantines for this unprovoked hostility in an

Attempt to do just that Murad decided to besiege Constantinople but was recalled back to Bursa after Manuel attempted to utilize Murad's 13 year-old rebellious brother to fight back against him the boys revolt was subdued and Murad was

Able to refocus his efforts towards fortifying his Dominion by reestablishing his authority over the Anatolian vassals and principalities as well as continued effort to expand further into Europe conflicts with

Venice Serbia Hungary and other non allies became a regular occurrence near the end of the fourteen 20s in 1444 Murad faced a Christian coalition of Crusaders at the Battle of Varna led by John Hunyadi the Hungarians and their

Allies were soundly defeated in what could only be deemed an embarrassing retreat one notable detail of this battle is the fact that Vlad Dracul the current valet he invovled had sent a small contingent

Under his eldest son to assist Hunyadi and his Crusaders despite the fact that Murad was holding drag holes two youngest sons as hostages to ensure allegiance from Valaya not much came of this situation until later but it serves

As a clear demonstration of the frequent betrayals that plagued the times before the Battle of Varna Murad had actually abdicated his throne to one of his sons mehmed ii displeased with this immense responsibility as merely a child

Mehmed urged his father to return and lead their troops against that Christian forces that aimed to take advantage of a young new Sultan after undertaking the task and trouncing the crusading effort Murad went back into retirement until he

Was required to return in order to quell a Janissary revolt it wasn't long before the elder Sultan was once again forced to meet the troops of Christian Europe this time on the battlefield of Kosovo still following the lead of John Hunyadi

A union of Hungarian valayan Moldavian and other allied troops attempted to execute a new strike against the Ottomans in an effort to avenge their previous defeat at Varna caught off guard by Murad and his troops who had

Intercepted the Crusaders at the Kosovo pull a field John Hunyadi and his army faced another humiliating loss Murad was now able to finish out his reign by addressing the issue of Timor's son Shahrukh and gaining command over the

Leaders of the cherrim Amasya region in addition to an attempt though unsuccessful at defeating the Albanian forces of skander burg at the castle of crews

By the end of 1451 Marad had fallen ill and passed away leaving mehmed ii as sultan once again mehmed ii later deemed Mehmed the Conqueror for the remarkable accomplishments during his reign immediately looked to complete the task

Of finally capturing Constantinople as many of his predecessors had ventured to do in a ploy to curb any distractions Mehmed signed a peace treaties with both Hungary and Venice while preparing his Navy for the future siege of Byzantium

Chart in 1453 with an army of around 80,000 troops or more over 100 naval ships and something the previous Sultan's lacked cannons Mehmed began the campaign that would eventually be called the fall of

Constantinople the siege lasted over 50 days and resulted in a concise victory for the Ottomans who now declared Constantinople their new capital Mehmed also styled himself the Caesar of the Roman Empire a title that was denied to

Him by the Roman Catholic Church but accepted by the Eastern Orthodox Church the young Sultan then captured the final remaining Byzantine States and pressed further on into Europe in a reign marked by drastic government changes creating a

More centralized bureaucracy and appointing only those who could be loyal to him and his agenda to his court as well as continual back and forth between his empire and the European Christians one of the most prominent storylines may

Be the relationship between mehmed ii and vlad the 3rd dracula as previously mentioned two of vlad dracul sons had been held hostage by Murad ii these boys Radu and vlad the 3rd dracula grew up alongside Mehmed and each developed

Starkly different relationships with him while Radu would choose to stay within the Ottoman Empire and serve as a lifelong friend and Ally to Mehmet Vlad became a persistent opponent who fought against his contemporaries will

Until his final breath while some claimed that his long-standing strife with the voivode of the much smaller region and military shows a weakness in women it instead gives us a profound look at his personality and mindset

Before ultimately pulling back from his attempts to overpower and defeat lad Dracula Mehmed is recorded to have said that he could not take land away from a man who does such marvelous things and surely a man who had accomplished this

Is worthy of greater things these statements from the Sultan himself display not only a level of respect for his adversary but also his confidence in the Ottoman Empire as a whole during his rule Mehmed was

Willing to walk away from a conflict that he saw no near success him because he was head of essentially two empires having more or less absorbed the Byzantine Empire and knew that his power could not truly be stifled so easily

This tone of tolerance extended past Mehmed himself and can be seen again during the reign of his son Bey as of the second who claimed the throne after his father's death in 1481 the start of Baeza the second term as

Sultan is slightly stained by a conflict with his brother CEM once his position was secured Bey as it began to make some changes to his father's policy and put a strong emphasis on domestic politics throughout both the east and west

Establishing a more well ordered system though not remembered entirely for the conflicts he engaged in Bayezid did put notable effort into conquering new venetian territories and balkan lands nonetheless the most remarkable decision

Under bayazid ii to round out the 15th century may have been his reaction to the expulsion of both Muslims and Jews from Spain in 1492 bayazid condemned Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella the first sending the Ottoman Navy over to

Safely relocate the banished Muslims and Jews to his own territories he told every leader under his authority that they were to welcome all of the refugees and would be punished by death if they were to treat the Jews any differently

Than their Muslim counterparts this extraordinary act led to an increase of new skills enhancements and ideas being brought into the Empire which resulted in heightened success for the welcoming Sultan by the end of the 1400s phases ii

Remained on the Ottoman throne as a well respected and prosperous leader earning the epithet of the just Bazin maybe one of the more underrated rulers of the empire today he just like those throughout the rest of the century

Accomplished noteworthy feats that helped to continue the propulsion of the Ottoman Empire and its power into the many many years to come

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