First Campaign Half 1 of two

published on July 2, 2020

[Music]

in the Middle Ages Europe and the Middle

East were divided between Christian

States or Christendom and Muslim states

they were uneasy neighbors and

frequently at war on the front line the

eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire the

major Christian power in the eastern

Mediterranean but in the 11th century a

powerful new force emerged threatened

its very survival the Seljuk Turks

originally from Central Asia migrated

south converted to Sunni Islam and

carved out a great Empire for themselves

in 1071 at the Battle of Manteca the

Seljuk Turks inflicted a crushing defeat

on the Byzantine Empire

they went on to conquer most of anatolia

cities such as Nicaea and Antioch rich

in Christian history fell to the Seljuk

Turks

in 1092 the great seljuq Sultan Malik

Shah died and his empire began to

fragment the Byzantine Empire came under

renewed attack as local warlords force

territory and plunder in 1095 as anti an

emperor Alexius the first Comnenus wrote

to pope urban ii making a desperate

appeal for military aid from his fellow

Christians in the West it wasn't the

first such appeal by the Emperor but

this time the results would be unlike

anything ever seen before

Pope Urban saw the Emperor's appeal as a

golden opportunity a chance to heal the

risk that had emerged between Western

and Eastern Churches in the Great Schism

to assert his own papal authority over

the unruly barons and bishops of Western

prison de and to drive back the infidel

and reclaim Christianity's most holy

sites most of all Jerusalem lost to

Muslim rule 400 years before

at Claremore in France Pope Urban

preached a sermon to a gathering of

clergy and nobles he called on Christian

Knights and foot soldiers to go east to

aid their brother Christians and free

Jerusalem from Muslim rule and he

offered a unique spiritual incentive

whoever for devotion alone not to gain

honor or money goes to Jerusalem to

liberate the Church of God can

substitute this journey for all penance

he was offering europe's knight who

lived in fear of damnation because of

the violent lives they led the chance to

atone for their sins to holy war what's

more their objective jerusalem was a

city that captivated the medieval

imagination like no other the most holy

place on earth

the folks offer exhilarated his audience

his words were met with cries of deus

vult deus vult God wills it God willed

it

the Pope's appeals preached across

Europe sparking a wave of religious

fervor thousands of lords knights and

ordinary people vowed to travel to the

Holy Land and fight for Christ

they identified themselves by wearing a

cross later becoming known as could she

signatures Crusaders

a few of these men saw opportunity in

the East but pain and fortune but

overwhelmingly they went in search of

spiritual salvation willing to undertake

a long expensive and perilous journey to

save their souls from the fires of hell

both Herbert had intended the crusade to

be led by nobles and made output Knights

and experienced soldiers but the viral

success of his appeal led thousands of

ordinary townsfolk and peasants to take

the cross many inspired by a French

priests known as Peter the Hermit who

became leader of this so-called people's

crusade in the Rhineland some of these

Crusaders fired up by old prejudices and

talk of holy war

attacked local Jewish communities

slaughtering around 5,000 men women and

children and extorting money from those

they spend these massacres were

condemned by the church but to little

effect in the summer of 1096 people's

crusade twenty to forty thousand strong

made its way east the main contingents

led by Peter the Hermit traveled along

the river Danube but they were ill

disciplined and poorly prepared when

they ran out of food in Hungary they

attacked and looted Christian

settlements they continued to pillage

the land of their supposed Ally the

Byzantine Empire when they reached

Constantinople the Emperor quickly

ferried them to Anatolia to be rid of

them

in enemy territory lacking discipline or

leadership their main force was soon

ambushed and slaughtered by the Turks

meanwhile some of Europe's most powerful

feudal lords were departing for the Holy

Land at the head of their own

contingents they were much better armed

and organized than the disastrous

people's crusade

they included from the rain

Godfrey of do young with his brothers

Eustace and Baldwin of boo line Hugh of

Vermont wah younger brother of the

French King count

Robert of Flanders and Duke robbers of

Normandy son of William the Conqueror

the wealthy Stephen of dois from

Provence count Raymond of Toulouse

accompanied by the Crusades spiritual

leader papal legate damar of the boy

and from southern Italy Norman Lords

Boehm and of Toronto and his nephew

tankard the various contingents

converged for their agreed rendezvous at

Constantinople together they formed a

huge army perhaps 60,000 strong probably

the largest seen in Europe since the

fall of the Western Roman Empire the

Byzantine Emperor Alexius had expected

to welcome a small force of Western

mercenaries and serve under Byzantine

command but the giant Crusader force

that began arriving in December 1096

made him nervous and distrustful

particularly the presence of Boehm and

of Toronto who'd spent much of his life

attacking with a van tine empire Alexius

gave the crusaders money supplies and

guides but only after their leader swore

oaths of fealty and promised to return

or Byzantine territory to the Emperor

not keep it for themselves only then

were they ferried across the Bosphorus

into Anatolia

the Crusaders were a mighty military

force particularly the armored Knights

who made up about a sixth of their

strength but they have to adapt rapidly

to the heat terrain and hit-and-run

tactics of their Turkish enemy in their

favor the Islamic world and the great

seljuq empire itself was badly divided

its Turkish governors at a banks were

busy fighting each other as well as the

sheer Fatimids of Egypt none of them was

prepared for the First Crusade or had

any real understanding of its strength

or age

[Music]

the Crusaders first success came at

Nicaea

which fell after a six-week siege but

the city surrenders of a Byzantium

forces cheating the Crusaders as they

saw it of their rightful plunder it was

a further strain on the delicate

relations between Crusaders and thus at

times they began marching inland through

intense summer heat in two columns a

vanguard under Boyland of Toronto and

rearguard under Godfrey of bouillon here

Dora Liam Beaumont Vanguard was ambushed

by the main Turkish army

[Music]

based on consider chronicles this is our

best understanding of how the confused

fighting unfolded work on seeing he was

about to be attacked by a large force of

enemy cavalry sends an urgent message to

the rear guard asking for assistance

then he formed up his knights and

ordered his infantry into a defensive

formation behind them protecting the

camp followers the Crusaders came under

attack from all sides facing a hail of

arrows from Turkish horse archers as

well as javelins and hit-and-run strikes

from there faster light cavalry the

Knights were driven back onto their own

infantry over several hours losses

mounted but the Crusader line held

meanwhile Godfrey was racing up with the

rearguard to join the battle

troops were fed into the fighting as

soon as they arrived on the Turks left

flank the Crusader advance was hidden by

the terrain so that they appeared

suddenly threatening the Turks with

encirclement when the Christian night

all charged together the Turks

panicked turned and fled it was a major

victory for the Crusaders and allowed

them to continue their advance across

Anatolia without serious opposition

at Heraclea they defeated a small

Turkish force then split up the main

force struggled through the mountains of

Cappadocia losing many of their baggage

animals and running dangerously low on

supplies

meanwhile Baldwin of blue line and tank

red probably out to sea land and plunder

for themselves traveled south into

Silesia capturing the city of Tarsus and

other settlements tankard later rejoined

the main army but Baldwin was invited by

local Armenian Christians to travel to a

Desa they were soon installed as count

Baldwin of Edessa ruler of the first

Crusader States in October 1097 the rest

of the Crusaders reached Antioch the

next stepping stone on the road to

Jerusalem but outside its walls the

First Crusade will come to the brink of

disaster detonated by disease and

starvation and encircled by their

enemies it would take a miracle to save

them from annihilation

research and artwork for this video

comes from Osprey publishing extensive

range of books on medieval history every

Osprey book examines a particular battle

campaign or combat users in

authoritative particulars detail and

with more than 3000 titles they cover

everything from ancient warfare to

modern conflict visit their website the

see their online catalogue thank you to

all the patreon supporters who made this

video possible if you'd like to find out

how you can support the channel and even

get to vote on future topics please

visit our patreon page by clicking the

link

[Music]

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