Filmmaking 101: Training for Scriptwriting, Camera, Shooting, Lighting and Video Post Production

by birtanpublished on July 9, 2020

What we’re gonna do here is we’re gonnado a filmmaking 101 class for you guysand if you have any questions orinterest or anything like that pleaselet us know along the way because if wedon’t have the answers we couldcertainly point you in the right

Directions for thatmy name is Craig canet and I’m one ofthe one of the founders of the festivalit goes back 12 years we’re reallyexcited to to do this workshop again wedid a workshop with our second event and

Now we’re doing it with our twelfthevent so it’s been a little bit a whilebetween the between the two things alsowith me is Tony really Tony why don’tyou tell people a little bit aboutyourself sure I’m a director of

Photography and director at creativeedge productions I’m also an educatorfor NextWave DV which is one of ourblogs and YouTube channel where we do alot of behind-the-scenes videoproduction and stuff like that

I do have a film they’ll be shown hereas well and Craig asked me if I’d beinterested in sharing just some of thethings that I’ve learned over the yearsI started off as a very much an amateurfilmmaker and no education and and then

Slowly building my way up so what I wantto show you guys a mind of the stuff isjust how to do it without any planningor any formal education and just makingyou know kinda as you go in and whateverworks is what you do I think of some of

My absolute favorite films and they’refrom when I was in high school becausethat was such a significant time of mygrowth and I’m a huge fan of the roadwarrior that’s a movie that came outright at the right perfect time for me

And and it means so absolut much as faras that as far as my life is concernednow the significance of storytelling ingeneral are there anybody in here that’sat an educator we had a teacher backthere at school called sir I took a

Class last year on storytelling which Iwould recommend to all teachers everysingle teacher out there storytelling isa way of getting cos and a way ofcommunitythat registers with the human brain for

Example they’ve done studies wherethey’ve taught people all thesedifferent facts it’s like okay here’s afact here’s a fact here’s a fact andthen they tested you on those facts theytested people on those facts and people

Did okay but then they worked thosefacts into a story they worked those allthose different things into a story andtold that story and by gosh those peopleremembered those facts so much moresignificantly the the ratio was so high

That I’m like why don’t teach us knowthis because if they knew that we wouldbe able to reach kids and such astronger pace by sharing stories everynow and then because when you’relistening to facts you listen to them in

One particular mindset when you starthearing a story your brain clicks in adifferent waynow Tony and I are gonna kind of teamteach this but we’ve we want to try totalk to you guys about things to do and

Things to avoid to make a betterproduction now the first thing that Iwant to share with you guys the veryfirst thing and I think is prettyimportant is idea anytime you guys thinkyou have an idea jot it down take the

Time to put it in a notebook take thetime to put it on your cell phonewhatever it takes to receive that ideabecause how many of you guys out therehave already lost an award-winning shortfilm or idea because you didn’t write it

Down I know I’m in net I’m in that boatdefinitely in that boat you need to tryto take that time and I even write thatdown ideas when I’m driving down thehighway so you can do it and it doesn’tyou don’t you have to translate it later

Because your pen your hand penmanship isnot very good but it’s there thatinformation I want that information Iwoke up in the middle of the night froma dream and I’m like oh my god that wassuch a brilliant movie in my head that

Was such a great movieit was so good I will remember ittomorrow morning I will remember thatdon’t have to write that down you wakeup in the morning and it’s gone you knowit is absolutely gone so the importance

Of getting those ideas down I cannotstress that enough I truly truly can’tnow you’ve got an idea you’ve got seedsof different scenes what do you do withthat start thinking about start thinkingabout how that would generate into a

Story and there’s a lot of differentways of structuring your story sometimessome of you guys have probably heard ofthis three-act structure the three-actstructure is pretty famous as far as ifyou want to write a Hollywood script you

Almost have to know the three-actstructure verbatim and follow thatpattern it to the letter there are booksout there that’ll help you with thatstructure big time save the cat is oneand that same writer is written a couple

Of other books about saving cats so andit’s actually based on the first coupleminutes of your movie if you don’t hookyour attention of your audience you lostdoesn’t even matter if it’s a fabulousstory by H by page 50 if people don’t

Get to that page it doesn’t matter okayso getting this thing now in story formand that can jail in your head for along time I’ve on I’ve had ideas one ofthe short films that I wanted to doyears ago have to do had to do with

Singing one of them one of the shortfilms that I did a couple years ago andhad to do with a guy over pumping gas hehad $10 in his wallet and he goes up to12 bucks now what do you do what do youdo after that and it’s a problem that

Everybody I think can identify with so Ihad this seed of an idea in my head fora long time and it just sat there andgelled and gel that I’m like okay whatwould happen if this person happened andadd a couple characters add this in

There and it just kind of flopped andflopped and when I’m driving around andthinkabout it and then finally one dayeverything just kind of went snap andsnapped into the right position and that

Morning I had a teacher’s in-servicewhere I was supposed to be payingattention and I took that out of thatthat two hour period and I wrote out theentire script boom just like that itcame out that easy after having said and

Thought about it that long so the storyis there and you know what storystructure can be as simple as this abeginning a middle and an end that’ssuper easyseriously they do a thing on the online

Called the five five second videos 5second stories and in five secondspeople can have a beginning a middle andan end that engages your mind tells youa story in that amount of timevini you’ve been making commercials

Forever you got 30 seconds to tell anentire story and you can do it it youhave to do it if you really want to hookthat audience you have to tell thatstory and that can contain the amount oftime so we’ve got we’ve got the

Importance of telling that story and nowthat you have your story you want tostart thinking about writing out atreatment and a treatment is somethingthat can be I’ve seen treatments thatwere a paragraph long this tells you

What my movies going to be about boomthis paragraph I’ve also seen treatmentsI read I have the treatment for et2remember that movie it never came out itnever came out the movie was called ettu and it had like a 12 page treatment

It was actually kind of an interestinglittle treatment it had a it had a andhelp I know et that would have been kindof interesting and he was kind of likethis evil et hmm that would have beenkind of weird but they never made it

That treatment was there and you knowwhat there’s billions of treatments outthere maybe not billions but there aretons of treatments out there fordifferent stories that you guys cancreate

And by having those treatments ready itboom now I’ve got that idea ready incase I ever get the passion to write itdoes that make sense because a lot oftimes getting those ideas down is keyand somebody could come up to you and

They’re like man oh man I really wantedto do us a movie about a talking kittenthat goes through his life wanting to bea dog she’s making this up and andsomebody somebody tells you that you’relike oh my god

I’ve got a story like that it’s notfleshed out but I’ve got it I will giveyou a million dollars to write it hereyou go wow that’s a great opportunityit won’t work quite like that Iapologize for giving you guys false

Hopes but but that’s pretty much gettingthose ideas down and ready importantall right treatment doesn’t have to belong it just has to contain your storythe next we get to go to that awesomelittle brute blueprint of a thing called

Your script all right we’ve got a couplescreenwriters out there amongst us so ifyou have anything to add raise your handand I will say wrong I will say and goahead and add something but when you’rewriting your script the very first

Mistake that some people do is they getto detail-oriented now you’d think waita second we want to have the details inthe script we want to have that forexample our very first line we start outwe can start out with fade in which is

Um which is actually we’ll start outwith with a with a direction so we’restarting from black we’re fading intothe story and now we have to decide arewe inside or outside that’s the veryfirst choice you have to make well you

Know what let’s start with an exteriorshot ext ext okay and now we got tofigure out where we’re atwell you know what I want to be at aseedy bar with low lights and it’s andit’s smells of garbage and it’s and it’s

It’s one of those places that looks likeit it might have been popular in the 50sbut now it’s not popular anymore so nowI got to write that down and we get allthat detail in one line a bar now youcan add a you can add a descriptive line

In there certainly you can if you wantit to be a seedy bar if you want it tobe a dark bar if you want it to besomething whatever but don’t get toodescriptive with it because someone willread this script and want to find that

Location you know what if you know yourlocation as to where you want to go putthat exteriorjoe’s bar nowyou’re writing this script for yourselfso that’s gonna mean something if you’re

Writing this script for somebody elsedon’t do that they’re not nobodies aNelson else is going to know what Joe’sBar is and now we need to decide whattime of the day is it is it morning isit night a lot of times it’s just simple

As day or night but there are also manyother descriptors as far as that’sconcerned you can put in there and undercertain time you don’t know what time itisokay you can put in there noon i noon we

Could put in there midnight all right sonow I know exactly what time it isJoe’s exterior of Joe’s bar at midnightthat is my slug line that is the linethat lets people know where we are thevery second thing you want to add is

Your action typically you start with anaction people sometimes can cut right todialogue but an action I think is forwhat I’m writing I always like to havesome type of a describer so people knowwhat’s happening the second they see the

Screen so two guys sorry one write thisfor metwo guys white cigarsunder a light alright here we go now wekind of can see that we can visualizehaving their head Benny it probably

Would be I could put that in there too Ijust wanted I just am NOT a fast writerso I didn’t want to be so descriptive toguys like cigar under under astreetlight okay and I couldn’t even putdown who those two guys are at this

Point we might not know we might notknow who they are it’s still in theshadows next we’re going to get todialogue and I don’t want to spend toomuch time on this stuff but if you guyshave questions about it we can certainly

Talk a little bit more in depth on allthis stuff later on but you’re gettingyour script right is is key to gettingthat blueprint for your film started youreally want to have a strong blueprintnow we’re gonna move into dialogue and

Dialogue is some people really have aflair for dialogue you’ll hear KevinSmith’s name mentioned or you’ll hearQuentin Tarantino’s name mentioned thoseguys write interesting dialogue but alot of times I don’t know if it’s

Necessarily real at times I’ve heardI’ve heard some of their stuff that’sbeen yeah wow I can really believe thoseguys and I’ve heard other pieces whereit’s like hmm not sure I necessarilybelieve that my suggestion to you is to

Really really listen to people listen towhat people sound like because not oftendo people talk with proper grammar notoften not always when people use theexact right phrase for example do not godown there if I were to write that in a

ScriptI wouldn’t put do not go down there heyhey James do not go down there unlessit’s a butler don’t do not to go downthere that might be appropriateotherwise I put in contractions don’t go

Down there don’t go down thereso right as people would speak it’llmake it much more concisequicker it’ll make a lot more sense tothe reader if that makes sense to youalso and this is a really tricky one

When you’re writing your characterdialogues be extremely careful this isone of the problems at beginning writershave is that a lot of your characterswill sound like you exactly like youthat’s not a problem for one of the

Characters one of the characters mightbe derived from you but if all thecharacters sound the same you’re gonnabe coming from like this cookie cutterworld and everybody doesn’t necessarilyhave the same viewpoints in the same

Opinions and things of that nature sotry to bury up the the tone of yourdialogue the tone of your characterswhat they say I’m sure that if I go backand look at some of my older films andeven some of my newer films some of my

Characters are always going to sound thesame it’s something that you always wantto be working on alright so now we’regoing to go to the dialogue and whenyou’re doing dialogue keep in mind ifyou there are certain formats that you

Can put your screen screenplay into youwere from you took a class inscreenwriting rightAshley you two about talking the guy infront of you but but anyway it’s both ofyou guys there’s certain formats right

That you’re that you’re kind of stronglystrongly encouraged to use is that trueand and this sort of follows that butI’m not talking about the margins oranything like that they get into thatmuch detail finding the margins this

Place this line should be spaced in herethis actually fade in should be way overhere when you start out AshleyI I use final draft myself tooand there’s a there’s actually some freescreenwriting software online too that

You guys can get do you know what it isCeltics write that down you guys becauseif you want to get into some some somescreenwriting free software I’ve nevereven heard that one you still can writethis down you’re going to probably end

Up with a page and a half to scriptbecause roughly translated your scriptsgo about a minute a page Vinnie you gotsome other detailsthere’s alsowhen you see this right here

This means that you’re a new scene pointand so from when I obviously I’m comingfrom production side if we were ifGregor has come to me and I say how manylocations are we shooting at what are wegoing to be you know whatever and how

Many different times a day every everyshooting because we may be shooting atthe bar but there may be a daytime shoutthere may be a nighttime shot so softscript writing software well once youset up all of these it’ll then break it

Out into cards and then you can then saythese are all the different locationswe’re shooting at you can have notes forthose to say simple things like you knowthere needs to be a fancy at Hearstthere something bizarre you can write in

There make sure that everybody is on thesame page and break them out so that’sthat’s big advantages to using scriptwriting software you don’t need it butit’s gonna make your life a lot easierespecially if you’re doing anything of

Length and substance cool um I also wantto add this you guys both know thescreenwriting format it’s very veryimportant if you want to sell yourscript if you want to sell your scriptyou better have it written right because

If you don’t be creative with thatformat in any way I have heard storiesof people that are like you know whatevery character that I have I’m going touse a different font for the way theyspeak that’ll be awesome

It’ll be creative and people willremember that you know what when thatscript gets into the office of someonethat wants to write a spirit wants tobuy a script they’re gonna see that andthey’re gonna go whoops they’re gonna

Not even really check it outget your format right and within thefirst page hook them it has to be donethat way I don’t want to spend too muchmore time on on the dialogue I want toget to Tony’s stuff here slugline action

Dialogue and then you’ve got a basicblueprint of a script there in thisparticular first draft of the script dowhatever it takes if you don’t know theformat and you’re gonna be the directorwrite it in a format that you understand

Just so that you get it done so soyou’re not worried so much aboutformatting and learning that you canlearn that later get your story writtenso that you understand it because you’regonna be making this movie learn this

Later on and then apply it start usingit I use this all the time when I’mwriting but I didn’t use it when I firststarted I didn’t know it when I firststarted and also there are two there arethere are a couple different types of

Scripts we’ve got our basic script thatwe would hand to our actors would lookto see where all their lines are andlet’s just say Jake says hey man okay sowe’ve got this this lineJake hey man it’s all he says we’ve got

This already there’s another type ofscript called a shooting script or adirector script when you get to thatpoint and you’re the director a lot oftimes I will write a shooting scriptright away I will write a director

Script right away because it’s my movieI know what I want it to do I know Iwant a crane shot in there so I can workthat into the script but if you get toodescriptive on that stuff you tend tolose your readers if you’re if you’re

Trying to sell your script or you’retrying to do something else with it sothere’s a shooting script and a basicscript that you have and once you haveyour shooting script ready you can startcasting your film and now for you guys

Out here that have have passions andwant to make a movie here is anothersuggestion that I have for you make alist of your lifeand what you have access to in your lifeif you have access to somebody who has

An old car take note of that take noteof that and keep that file the way inyour head if you have access to somebodywho owns a laundromat who would let youshoot there without a question take noteof that lock that in somebody has a

Camper that you could use all thesethings can kind of come in to beutilized in a movie someday or in astory someday it’s smart to craft yourmovie around what you have access tobecause if you can do that my buddy has

A speedboat for example making this upmy book your body has a speedboat allright well you know what what if wecould work that into our movie and notmake it super jarring that all of asudden they’re in that speedboat but

That could be part of your movie and itwould increase your production value ofyour film it would make it look like youspent a million dollars but you didn’tspend anything on it you just boughtyour body a case of beer and that was it

So look at what you have access to andshape your story around that casting Ikept notebooks filled of people when I’dmeet them and I’d think about whatpossible Parts I could put them in I wasworking a years ago on a film called

Stonecutters quest which was an epicViking comedy and talked about bitingoff more than I could chew everythingwas gonna be set in medieval times everycostume was going to be in medievaltimes all the weaponry all that stuff

Was going to be done in that particulartime zone and all your locations wereset in that time period as well so Ihave this really fun script that’sbroken down into all these little scenesthat never got made because of the scope

Of things try to keep your scriptssomething that you can manage somethingtry not to maybe with your first piecetackle a timed period what do they callthat period piece yeah a period piecetry not to make a period piece with the

Very first movie that you’re going tomake you know that might be a reallygood idea also you might be castingyour friends or you might be castingactual actors we’re going to speak aboutactors in a little bit probably with the

Production aspect of things but Dave I’mgoing to ask you to add something alittle bit later props and costumes allright you need some you need some lateray guns for this scene make them youneed some you need some costumes for

This scene so um up learn how to do thisstuff you can save a little bit of moneyand you don’t have to you think aboutthe coolest thing about making movies isthat everything is a facadeeverything is just there on the surface

It doesn’t have to look fantastic on theother side of it in fact if you go andlook at some of the studio’s out in LAand look at the backs of things you’d besurprised like oh my god I thought thatit was a brick no it’s not it’s a it’s

Just a piece of canvas so all that stuffit and what do you start thinking aboutthat it makes things so much easier tokind of start problem-solving all rightwell I want to make this look like a theinside of a castle how do I do that will

You start cutting foam up and gluing iton a wall and then you paint that foamand it sort of looks like a castle walland then you light it with lights thatis going to create shadows so that itdoesn’t look like foam anymore and all

Of a sudden boom you’ve got a castlewall which is which is convincinglocations to like I mentioned beforereally take note of those locations andas far as where you can go to get yourmovies made if you’ve got access a we’ve

Shot in state parks here and sometimesyou need sometimes you need paperwork todo that but if you’re quick you don’tyou it’s always best to ask permissionfirst when anything you’re doing but thenice thing about shooting movies in

Wisconsin is a lot of times you don’tneed to get the permits that you’d needto get in California for example thatthat is one of the benefits of beinghere in the in the state I want to talkto you guys a little bit about

Storyboarding as welland then I’m gonna turn it over to Tonywhy would you possibly need tostoryboard something anybody have anyideas first of all go ahead what do yougot fantastic that’s that’s perfect yeah

One of the reasons that I like thestoryboard is because I need to beconcerned about my actors and I need tobe most of the time let me draw a chartfor you real quick here and this isgonna this is something I want you guys

To take strong note of because it’sgonna be it’s something that someoneshared with me a long time ago and itreally has stuck here’s a pie chart ofall making movies okay and here we’vegot a section that’s good and here we’ve

Got a section that’s fast and here we’vegot a section that’s cheap all right youcan only pick two of those things youcannot have all three you cannot make agood fast cheap movie it’s not possibleyou can only make you can only make if I

Need to make a movie that’s good andfast it’s not gonna be cheap if I’mgonna make a movie that’s cheap and fastit’s not gonna be good and if I’m gonnamake a good movie that’s cheap it’s notgoing to be fast that right there is

That is the category that most of youguys should fit into okay we want itgood and we want it cheap we’re notgoing to be able to make it overnightwe’re not going to be able to make itfast that means that you’re going to

Have to kind of look at your talent thatyou got and a lot of times you’re goingto get actors that are going to be doingthis for free doing it out of theirpassion for the story their passion forperformance so you want to get them

Hooked in but you don’t want to takeadvantage of them and I really stronglyencourage you guys not to take advantageof your talent people are there to helpyou but make it a good positiveexperience for them be concerned with

The amount of time that you’regoing to they’re gonna be on the set foryou alright I’ve got this window ofopportunity now I’ve got this I’ve gotI’m going to shoot at the sports cornerand appear from 10 o’clock until 4

O’clock I’ve got this window ofopportunity I’ve got my actors that aregoing to be there and I got a hundredand twenty seven shots that I need toget in that amount of timethat’s ridiculous but that’s your window

Of opportunity that’s when you start tostoryboard my goodness you almost haveto you almost have to make your moviebeforehand in your head on paper so thatyou can translate that to your thepeople that are helping you and that’s

What I did right here for that sameexact thing and now I’ve really studieda bunch of different storyboardingtechniques and storyboarding formats andthose do varywhereas scripts are always the same

Storyboarding varies big-time whatthere’s a lot of films that do thatthere really are and if you if youreally are interested in learning moreabout that yeah check out the behind thescenes stuff watch the the comparison

Between there and now there are alsoplaces like any any place that’s gotbigger budgets they’ll do animaticsinstead of storyboards which are movingstoryboards and I look at these and I’mlike oh my god that’s a great movie just

In itself and then they’re like nothat’s just our animatic holy crud it’samazing but I’m gonna I’m gonna let youguys take a look at these one of thereasons that I do storyboards is becauseall of a sudden one two three four four

Shots are all the same location is fromthe same angle so I put those togetherand I shoot them kind of not in theright order out of sequence but I canget them like that and again especiallyif your time is is that in essence if

Your time is super crucial to youstoryboard or get somebody to help youand they don’t have to be extremelyartistic when you do that in the past Iwas wrong even if it’s I’ve been on setswhere it’s just stick men stick man in

Pictures but you know what thatcommunicates with the people that aresetting up your camera that communicateswith the people that are setting up yourlights they know what to expect that andthey can prepare for that Tony the

Storyboard also breaks down to a shotlist – yepyou when when you have the storyboardyou know what shot you’re gonna do thenyou go into your shot list and that’swhere you definitely break it down like

You’re saying you know these are allsame angle let’s do that so you’re notshooting continuity you’re shooting forlighting and framing andeverything is running us fishing andwhat they don’t know if you’re gonna

Mention this Bob I’ll bring it brieflyis you’re gonna be working with a lot ofvolunteer actors you may not pay thembut always feed them number one thepriority if you have if you’re gonna getpeople that want to work with you feed

Them and they’ll be happy for a longtime yeah and actually to jump on whatTony said there were there were fourdifferent things you wanted to give youractors four different things I try togive my actors I’ve tried to feed him I

Try to give him a credit for their whatthey’ve done I try to pay for their gasand there was one other thing that Ican’t remember huh oh yeah a copy of themovie try to give them a copy of whatthey’ve done

And if you can do those four thingsyou’re gonna be somebody that the actorswant to work with again and you knowwhat let’s throw on a fifth thing try tobe trying to let them have a little bitof fun here’s another secret for you

Let’s make it a sixth thing if you cangive them a seed of creative input intowhat you’re making and it doesn’t evenhave to be something that younecessarily are going to use or not useit’s like okay

Laurence you’ve been in my movie nowyou’ve done the scene I want to see justyou do a take now that you can whateveryou want to do to get that same emotionthrough do it take with that and all ofa sudden Lawrence is like oh my god okay

Geez I don’t know what I was gonna dobut hey give me that money kid or you’rea goner Lawrence that was brilliantthat’s the one I want to use and nowhe’s invested in my project because heactually had a teeny spark of creative

Input no one talks about that no onetalks about how important that can bejust that little bit of input that youlet somebody else have I’ve been on setswork with some with some directors whereit’s like well can I can I manipulate

The script to say so it sounds a littlebit more believable noyou don’t change my words my words arethe Bible just asking you know but thenany time I’m doing something with theexception of maybe one or two specific

Specific lines I’ll say all right let’ssee that line a couple times and see ifit’s believable if it’s not believablelet’s maybe change it to how you wouldsay it and giving that that actor alittle bit of that input is really going

To make a huge difference I think inyour end result and the fact that peopleare going to want to continue to workwith you I hope that makes sense to youguysall right I’ve covered a ton of stuff

Here guys is there any questions so farbecause this is all pre-production stuffand anything that you can get done inpre-production take advantage of itbecause it’s gonna help right here withthe cheap part of things if you get that

Stuff ready it’s gonna be you’re gonnabe saving yourself some dollars forexample you want to have all of yourplanning done your production planningyou want to help make sure that you’vegot all your cables and whatnot because

If you’re out on a set and all of asudden you got it going running some ofyour tasks run to the hardware store toget an extension cord that you couldhave bought at a hardware store for youor you could you had at home you have it

In here you have it hanging in yourgarage but getting there and gettingback is not going to be time conduciveto your shoot so you got to go and buy awhole darn new extension cord I’ve heardI’ve heard tales of filmmakers going in

And making a purchase on something andthen as soon as they’re done shooting itthey return it to the store shame onthem that is something I don’t encouragebut man if you get in a pinch it can beDonna again I do not encourage that that

Behavior but if that’s what you have sobe it Before we jump into production I’mgoing to turn it back over here on DaveDavis as an actor Dave are you s s AGsaying noafternoon a couple different pieces why

Don’t you tell us a little bit aboutcome when you’ve been on set beforehow long is rehearsal been it varies forthe bigger films first the small filmsso you’ll see more of the independencewere telling what you get for the site

Which you get for script and some of thedirectors like you said that the lackthe bigger films it’s you’re gonna staywith what’s in the script you have toremember you have to have an emotionalindependence I see more than flexibility

Which is more what I like where it’s Ithink you get right on it if you can getan actor that’s somewhat engaged to itif they feel like they’re a part of itit’s gonna be more enthusiastic it’sgonna be more sincere you’re gonna get

More of what you’re looking for as adirector that’s just my take on it whereit’s give them a little piece so I havetheir spark let them put their emotioninto it as an actor you’re only as goodas a person opposite you and I’ve seen

Directors say we can’t get it this guy’smessing up on his role we’re typicallyit’s the opposite person because you’retrying to get emotion out of them if youhave a blank stare if you have nothingthere it’s extremely challenging to work

With and I kind of gave you a trickquestion – when you’re doing anindependent film at the level that a lotof us get to do rehearsal isn’t is it issomething that is a luxury you neverit’s like I don’t think I’ve ever gotten

A chance to have an official rehearsalon a film a lot of times it’s like yougive the actor the script ahead of timeby all means and then they can study itand learn it but then as far as alrightwe’re gonna meet on Wednesday and we’re

Gonna practice them lines whatever it’snot it’s just it doesn’t always happenthat way and I’ve been on a lot ofshoots where all the stuff you practicewe changed it now here’s the new sheetthat we want you to do in the morning

And it’s like oh my god and a lot oftimesgo ahead yeah exactly your rehearsalsthe first date but that’s the luxury ofdoing things on video it can be cheap toreshoot it

You just can make make a number of takesand be careful because when you get tolike you’re your 12th take on somethingyour actors are starting to get tired ofit and they’re losing some of theirtheir their passion for that particular

Scene you want to make sure that thatthere’s still some freshness to it andyou might have to make some exceptionsalong the way I can’t tell you everymovie that I’ve made you have to makeadjustments you have to have some

Creative some creative problem-solvingskills to adjust as you’re makingsomething because all of a sudden boomthe plan that you did in storyboardingisn’t gonna work for that particularshot figure it out right there on the

Spot and make it quick and make itsomething that’s gonna work you got tobe ready for that or you miss some shotsoh boyI missed the shot where we get hiseyebrows going up well I can I can have

Him come back in you might not have thatluxury now you got to cut away tosomething else all right with the actingthing what about people that don’t havea background in actingwhat can a director do to help them oh I

Think for shorts it’s fine somebody atthe writing process I think you shouldbe looking for your actors find peopleletter excited about what you’re doing Ihad friends do some interesting one ofthe films is called poof and it was

About a guy that went around it as apoop collector and I saw this was one ofthe first shorts I did I knew the guyslet’s do this and I thought alright itlooks funny but let’s clown aroundthere’s no budget in this this is just

Screwing around the small camerathis is a number of years ago but Ithink if there’s if they’re involved ifit’s something they like whew or doing afilm on cars find people thatenthusiastic about cars it shows through

As opposed to kind of fake it throughand if there’s no budget it’s a lotharder when it’s you’re just thereyou’re doing it in shorts because youreally enjoy it either you believe inthe actor you prefer that producer you

Believe in the director you believe inwhat they’re doingit’s a lot more fun it’s not as stuffyas when you do the bigger films there’sa lot more money in that but it’s soscripted and everybody’s more about

Themselves and I’m not taking anythingfrom the industry it’s just the shortsor a true passion it’s a true you cansee the fun in it so I always say findthe people that are is enthused about itas you are you’ll see some amazing

Things and synergies that come out withthat and it’s not for the money that’sjust dude it’s not work you’re enjoyingit that’s what Craig was saying it’syour change and then you’re improvisingas you go along

So it’s not it’s not as nervous it’s notas stopping for lack of words but it’sand I think you can bring it out as as adirect right so you find the rightpeople when you can and it’s a lotharder without a bunch of self but it

Can be done I mean it’s Tom Craig I’llsit here wait and I had a casting thingcome through for a couple days andYonkers New York that that one’s decentpay they’ll cover travel but it’s notyou know it’s not a lot of money you

Still have to practice your trade sosomeone like me we were talking aboutthis out there I’d rather be in front ofa camera working on shorts of peoplethat want to be there that enjoy it as adirector you’re doing this because it’s

Your passion as opposed to making wellit’s 500 thousand bucks you know ifyou’re making five thousand you’re gonnabe pretty excited matter what you’redoing but it’s fine find the people Iguess is the biggest part and they’re

Out there I’d rather be in front of thecameraworking on like crap then saying I’llturn this down I’ll turn that down Iknow weather actors saying I won’t mytime is money I won’t do it for nothing

I think they’re losing out I really dowhy do you not believe in your I livehere I live in Appleton here most of thetime this is my community if I’m gonnasee you guys absolutely show me whatyou’re pitching you got a script might

Be a fun script let’s do it three daysor four days whatever you’re doing I canput my arms around a lot of differentthings and I know there’s other peopleout there like that too so don’t thinkit’s just me the ones that won’t do it

That are looking for money andeverythingCraig’s like those six things he saidone of the more talented not togetherone of the one of the more talentedactors I met that actually had a

Conversation with because I’m alwayscurious about this two directors and Ijust I’m an organized person so I liketo see the details like to see how itsscripted what can I learn as a directorwhat are you trying to convey sites are

One thing to me that’s bigger than thescript a lot of times we couldn’tprovides on that what are you trying toconvey but one of the bigger actors Imet and one of the pieces I got thatsurprised me was with Johnny Depp when

He was saying I said which films do youlike doing the pirate once he made moneyon that once the enjoyer with Tim Burtonand you watch them in there and I thinkAlison Wonderland one of my favorites Ithink it’s just brilliant the way that

It’s put together and a lot of peoplesay I don’t got it it doesn’t make senseit’s a weird cartoon he’s on LSD orsomething I don’t know what he’s doingbut I like that and a lot of the filmshe did with Tim Burton because those two

See each otherit sounds like Tim Wood given the scriptand say run with him do what you thinkhe’s doing what he wants and that’s whatyou’re seeing and that’s how the PiratesThingiverse and this you’ve seen him in

Different films and you’ve seendifferent roles but it’s that’s what heenjoyed doing and that guy’s making 30million a film so he can pick and choosewhat he’s doing but it’s I think if youyou give your actors the credit

Let them have some freedom to do somedifferent things to me especially inshorts I think sides are critical whatare you trying to convey in that wellmotion what kind of feeling some peoplelook at it and just pick it up say this

Is awesomethis is easy to do awesome I want tojump on to what Dave said too and as faras as far as the side note some thingslike that but you want your your actorsto take note of let’s say that you’ve

Got your grandfather’s got this greatlook it’s got this great look to mecould be this great character but whenit comes to delivering lines many of youguys see mark portraits film Americanmovie uncle doing lines and it was

Terrible it was just like you know Idon’t know he just delivered it so badit’s alright it’s alright it’s okaythere’s something terrible but he hadthis poor old guy doing that line about30 40 times and he never was gonna get

It right but almost everybody that youknow if you ask them to act for you inyour movie they’re like oh man I can’tdo it maybe they can’t deliver lines butI bet you a dollar that they could showa motion and that’s where I think you

Can get a lot done a lot of my moviesthat I make are oftentimes silent I loveit when I can tell a story visually withemotion and and situation rather than ishaving somebody come up and say hey howare you doing brother it it depends on

How people can deliver those lines ifyou can get you can get a little kid togive you an emotion you know grace lookworried right now okay now don’t look soworriedlet go worried only a little bit and

They cando a really good performance on that andalso here’s another little tip for youguys as far as directing is concerned ifyou ask somebody well I need you to doas I need you to speak from that door to

That door when they sneak they’re gonnalook like they’re acting they’re gonnalook like it’s gonna be a cartoonthey’re sneaking that’s not what youwant when you’re directing tell themwhat I want you to do is I want you to

Go from that door to that door withoutmaking any noise and now all of a suddenthey’re not thinking about the sneakingaspect of things they’re actually doingit so those are some things to that Imean when you’re making movies with your

With your with your kids or with peoplethat you have access to they’re notgoing to be trained actors you’re gonnahave to try to pull these performancesout of them that that will make itbelievable and real all right

I apologize for rambling on so long I’mgonna add a little bit to Tony’s stuffbut I’m going to turn it over to Tonynow he’s going to talk about the actualproduction of the moviethanks great great job

And I always say that there’s threethings to a good film it’s good actinggood story and good production and Craigyou both elaborate on that the need forthat and how much goes into that there’sa time that goes into pre-production

There should be much more time that goesin a pre-production than in theproduction and so with that when whenCraig first came to me and said you wantto do this workshop we were titling infilmmaking 101 and I was going to do the

Production side of things I was tryingto figure out what to talk about is youknow this there’s a lot to filmproduction and I don’t want to turn thisinto just a really a bridge tofilmmaking class so rather than that I

Thought well we would go into is is tryto avoid the common mistakes of amateurfilmmaking I as I said before startedoff very very you know no education noprofessionalism no nothing I bought acamera off of ebay that had a broken LCD

Screen on it for $27 and the viewfinderstill works so I was able to like reallyI up to it and point that stuff and juststart shooting video and that’s justwhere I started really falling in lovewith it the problem was it looked like

Crap and and I just I I reallyappreciate Craig for his desire to runout and just pour out stories I gotexhausted trying to do that but what Ireally cared about was making video looklike film then make it look like it’s

Close to Hollywood as possible so I’mjust gonna while I continue ramblingshortly I’m going to play our currentdemo real for our production companyCreative Edge productionsin the background the the visual effects

On here by Shawn Bowers and scimitarfees by myself this is stuff I literallywent from shooting like crap to doingstuff like thisin was it five years yeah only aboutfive years since we since we started

Playing around with it I think about twobegging 2006-2007 and and for me likeinstead of going to schoolI bought camera gear and I play with itand then I sold camera gear and then Ibought more and I sold it and I just

Kept doing that as an endless cycle andI got to play around with a lot ofdifferent things and see what I reallyenjoyed about it so yeah I will turnthat all the way down because that’s thelowest I can go but if you want to see

More of that you can go to our websitecreate a bitch prototype out but thatjust gives you a couple things that I’veworked on and done and let me jump backinto my presentation all right sothere’s five things I wanna talk about

Camera choice blocking and Compositioncamera motion audio and lighting I’m notgonna go into these in super depth thisis not going to be a high school orcollege program but I’m going to coverthese from the perspective of a person

That did this wrong and now person thattries to do it right and the things thatI wish I had known back then so firstquestion anyone that ever goes on ebayor looks around for a camera is are allcameras created equal I mean they all

Shoot video they all absorb light theyall create images and obviously the thebasics of that is no not all cameras arecreated equal but where does that inlife you if you’re not a person thatlooks over every single speck of a

Camera and wonders what do these thingsall mean how do you break it down toactual layman’s terminology these arethings that I’ve shot each one of thesehave shot with a different camera and atthis size they look pretty good right I

Mean not too bad so these are the threedifferent cameras I shot these top twoand that’s a Sony this is the one Icurrently shoot with on the bottom andthey’re all this one was they’re all HDthat’s a DSLR that shoots video but that

They’re all video cameras that shoot HDso they’re all HD right great perfectwell problem is if you magnify thoseimages and you start looking you’llnotice that the top camera being theoldest doesn’t resolve the detail as

Well you can see his you can barely makeout his eye these are these are blown upabout 400% and then you move on to theDSLR you can see more detail in her hairbut not as much detail as the camera onthe bottom which you see if you know in

The sideburns and in his eyes you cansee a lot more detail there so these arenone of these are shooting 4k or beyondHigh Definition this is all highdefinition but not all cameras arecreated equal and along with that you

Have something this dynamic range and Idon’t want to get into this too muchbecause is a very technical thing butdynamic range is basically what yourcamera can detect between pure black ifyou’re white and consumer cameras right

Now have an average of six to eightstops of dynamic range that means frompure black all the way up to pure whiteyou have stops of light sensitivity andwhat that basically means for everysingle stop it’s a double the previous

Black so if you’re shooting at you know50th of a second shutter speed one stopdifference would be 125th of a secondyou’re letting and twice as not a lightso it’s that’s the difference so camerathat consumer cameras have a lower

Sensitivity film is around 12 to 14stops of dynamic range so when you lookat film you say oh my god there’s allthis detail in the sky there’s a lot ofdetail in the shadows and I point myconsumer camera at something and it’s

Not showing any of that detail it looksyou know like it was shot with a handycamera this is one of the reasonsprofessional video cameras are startingto bridge that gap and they’re startingto approach the dynamic range of film

And really high-end cameras are evensurpassing the dynamic range of film butfor on a layman’s terminology if you saywhy does film look like this and why itis mynot look like this chances are this is

One of the fundamental reasons yourdynamic range EO camera is not highenough to get that detail and so youhave to light within that dynamic rangeif you’re seeing pure black like Craig’scan you come here a second

Just for an example Craig’s wearing avery dark shirt there’s shadow in thisshirt and we have you know there’sdetail here if you’re not seeing any ofthis you know like we don’t we don’t seethe texture and shirt and the folds and

Stuff like that what you would need todo is bring in more light so that yourcamera can detect that and so knowingthat that’s something that you can doexactly now we have why thank you goodalright so next thing is composing and

Blocking your shot one thing that I’veseen so much in amateur filmmaking is afear of getting close to a subjectstories are told from here when we aredialoguing between two people you don’tstand ten feet away from them or twenty

Feet away from that you’re usuallywithin a normal talking distance andthis is where stories are told and youwill notice that traditionally in mostmovies when there’s any level of adynamic conversation happening it’s

Happening fairly close to a lot ofindependent filmmakers amateurfilmmakers this is a close-upthat’s about obviously not a close-up sothe point is just to get through yourhead that you want to be able to use all

Those different shots as a close-upthere’s a medium there’s a wide thoseare all things that you should becomfortable using who’s ever heard of180 degree roll well and I won’t go intoit too much but the hundred and eighty

Degree rule is simply saying that if youstart shooting on one side of two actorsor a series of actors you have to stayon that you draw an imaginary linebetween them but whatever you start onyou stay on the only way to break this

Roll is if you transition between thereso if you have a dolly move or you havean accurate cross frame you can break itbut that’s true as a transitionalelement that breaks it I’m going to jumpback over here and show you a scene that

We shot this is from our filmand come on be nice right so this is aDalek scene we have the wide shot whichis an establishing shot we’re doing alittle bit of a Dali move to add somedepth now we’re moving in for the

Close-ups and we’re using some close-upfor elemental shots we have the reversaland a wide shot again that’s we’realways staying in the same side of theactors moving for another close-up moreclose-ups reversals and coming up after

This shot will be another close-up onone of the leads now even though he’sstaying frame right because we’veestablished him on frame right and it’sstill close-up it’s different than hisprevious close-up but we’re just always

Staying on the same side of those actorsso again a simple dialogue scene thatyou know a lot of people will sometimesI’ll do the establishing shot thenthey’ll jump on the other side of aperson or they’ll he’s he’s frame left

The other guy’s frame right they’llaccidentally put them both on frame leftbecause they’re crossing that 180 degreeroll line if that’s something that youkeep in your mind your your audience isgoing to be able to stay with you and

When you do the close-ups it’s not goingto be a visual discontinuity becauseyou’re staying where you’ve alreadyestablished yourselfall right jumping back inI’m gonna get to that so thank you for

Asking I don’t have a whole thing thatand all right so we have here here’s ourcoverage another thing to keep in mindis a lot of times I see an amateurfilmmaking they’ll do one or two shotswell we showed you in that previous

Scene was the wide and then thereversals on each of the talent now ifyou have a long dialogue scene that’sgonna get really really boring so younotice we had some cutaways when hemoved took the folder and put on the

Table we had that as a cutaway when wedid for the the scene if you watch ourfilm which will be shown later tonightduring that dialogue scene he was sayingsomething that was very domineeringand so having him looking down at the

Character it was it was a really goodmoment for that and so that’s why wehave that cutaway as another closeup ofhim but giving good coverage you’llnotice here we have two mediums and thena close-up

This gave Shawn as the editor theability to edit between those fouremotion and also keep it visuallydynamic we have if you look in the topone there’s two goons in the backgroundthat continues to establish this

Character as you know kind of a boss manand then the reversal here is just adifferent perspective of that same shotso you’re not constantly going back tothis one and if closed of course theclose-up for more intimate moments of

Dialogue so camera motion and I know I’mkind of cruising along with this I justwant to make sure we did everything incamera motion you’re gonna see here wehave a dolly and we have a jib who’s allfamiliar with dollies and chips pretty

Common before I get into it I do havequite an investment in dollies and jibsbut I also have a video out there of howI built my own out of a clothes hangerrack so you can build DIY gear there’sno problem in building it the thing is

When you’re doing paid gigs and peopleare expecting you to do to be in and outfast and you want the gear to workthat’s where you start investing inquality equipment I have about tenthousand dollars in jib and dolly and

Slider motion stufflike that because when I show up I wantit to work I want to be in and out and Ialso know what my client going why theheck am I paying you forplywood so just just keep in mind this

Is a visual element but feel free whenyou’re as an amateur filmmaker DIY isyour friend it’s where everybody startsoff and it gets you into the realm ofbeing able to do these shots withouthaving to go out and spend ten thousand

Dollars so for camera motion I just wantto show a few examples of of eachelement camera motion is something thatagain is lacking oftentimes in amateurfilmmaking because they either don’tknow how to use it or they overuse it we

Do a lot of corporate videos and incorporate videos I do jib shot sanddollar shots all the time because apiece of factory machinery is reallyboring to look at for a long periodtimes and people want to see dimension

And in an object and obviously film is atwo-dimensional medium and the only wayto show dimension in it unless you knowobviously these 3d movies but will saythat none of us are shooting 3d moviesand I hope none of you ever well but so

In order to give depth and dimension youhave to be able to move around and thenof course there’s lighting which we’llget to in a little bit but not only isits showing dimension it’s also showingemotion and so I’m gonna go through a

Few Dali are a few different cameramoves this is a Dali reveal it’s justsimply you know starting off at one partof the frame revealing another you coulddo a cutaway for this but a Dali revealgives you a moment’s retention you can

Build up emotion it’s also a great wayof just again showing perspective in ascene and it can elongate something abit longer if I just did a locked-offshot of a or a random chair and thenreveal this guy that would be really

Weird but to have that motion it can nowallow for allow for a musical intro itcan allow for a fade in a claw for a lotof different things it can also allowfor comedic elements like we see herehe’s crammed into a small vehicle

And very uncomfortable and this sceneactually plays out where somebody elsehas to now cram all of their stuff inand again we have a dolly reveal foradditional comedic element so there’s alot of things Dali reveals are great for

Giving you the timing that you need in ascene right here we have a dolly in thisis great for emotion of somebody feelinga sudden realization like oh my goshEureka this could be and in this scenehere we have a he gets a phone call he

Suddenly realized who it is on the phoneoh my gosh I can’t believe it’s youduh and so those are those are those areexamples that I have there another goodthing for Dalian is is when you want tocreate a level of intimacy it’s a very

Slow Dalian and and something’semotionally happening people are gettingcloser to each other she some girl isopening up about her past and so youwant to you want to creep in for thatemotional you can do a cut in but Dalian

Is just as more gradual and allows forthat emotion to draw on the opposingside we have the dolly out which adds asa level of disconnect it sorrow this guyis depressed so by dying out we kind offeel like we’re leaving him and he’s all

Alone also one thing I’ll mention inthat by framing him center frame thatalso gives him a level of aloneness sothat’s a different subjects moreblocking but by framing him center framethe whole frame feels like it’s

Surrounding him and he’s alone and lifeis horrible alright so now we have afollow move this guy’s walking forwardand now we’re this is also a reveal sothis is actually a dolly and a jib shotI want to play this again because kind

Of complicatedwe’re actually dollying in and jibbingup and tilting down now thereyou have professional gears becausethat’s a really hard move to do with theIOA gear but we’re we’re following you

As he’s walking forward and then we’regybing up to reveal the car and thenwe’re tilting out on the state with thecar in the frame so this is a greatfollow movement these guys are walkinginto a scene and we’re it’s a really

Really subtle dolly move but you can seethat we followed them in there verybriefly to get that follow motion thiscould make it feel like the audience isthere with the with the talent and a lotof that to play off now they’re walking

In here there’s a really really subtledolly move there but it feels likeyou’re walking in with them to revealthe main character here and then he sitsdown another again another cell dollymove so those those feel like you’re

There with the character following theirmotion is a great thing and last but notleast is the ability to play out a longscene and not have to do cutaways thisscene right here we see that we startout on the husband clean the dishes and

They’re dialoguing together we pan backand forth and literally I’m just dialingback and forth and then following eachactor with a pan and a tilt and so thatscene could have been a wide shotreversals close-ups or as we did there

We can do it in one salty not only doesthis add some dynamic elements to itbut it also helps for production set upyou don’t have to relight a scene youcan just set it up go shoot and that cansave you time if you have that ability

To do that so continue and then this isjust another example of a long dollyshot like thatall right let’s go in the audio I am I’ma director of photography I’m not anaudio tech Jonna actually is our audio

Tech on set we fill many many many hatsbut the the one thing I’m going to talkabout this on briefly is simply you knowthe two things on the you see in a filmis visual and the audible and you knowthe old saying goes if they say audio

Without video is radio and video withoutaudio is dead air so you you want tohave a good element of audio and youneed to pay attention that and if you’rejust getting started what the commonthing of a lot of independent filmmakers

Is either put the camp the microphone onthe camera or if they they may not evenhave a microphone they’re just using theonboard microphone out of the cameraobviously that is not the best choicefor you and for people to get started

There’s really two options for basicmicrophonesany audio engineer will give you a listof a bajillion mics that exist butthere’s really two basic ones that youcan interact with you’ve got your

Shotgun you’ve got your lavalier ashotgun is a directional mic and youwhen you point out something it recordsthat audio in that that generaldirection that a hundred percent like ayou know a rifle or something like that

But it’s general that’s the directionthink of it as a shotgun yeah think ofis a shotgun it goes that way it’s notsuper accurate but it goes thatdirection a lavalier of course is youknow you see it on the news they pin it

Up on themselves and for filmmaking youobviously don’t want to see the mic younever do that takes you away from theelement but you can put it underneathclothing and you can hide mics sometimesif you’re doing a wide shot and you

Can’t necessarily get the MOT gun closeenough and framepeople will more readily video right andaudio will take you out of a story soit’s the easiest way to improve youraudio the easiest way to improve your do

Is get the mic as close she came to thesubject it’s it seems simple itsfundamental but that is the number oneeasiest way to improve your audio youget the mic is physically close as youcan because there’s two things that

Happen first of all you are you’re justgetting a better signal of course butbut second of all you’re able to reducethe the noise floor every mic has anoise floor and when you can increasethe the audible well especially the

Background noise yet here’s your noisefloor and you look in some mics at mytap noise some your equipment might havea noise floor like where they actuallycontributed to a noise and the greaterthe gap you have your you know if you’ve

Got like a air conditioning running inthe background that’s at a certain levelthe greater you get the mic closer youraudio is gonna have a greater distancefrom that floor and here a build isolatethat let you if you have the mic further

Away you bring that closer and you’regonna hear that hum you know yeah so inorder to get their audio level up towhere it needs to be to match the otheraudio level now the noise for us to beboosted as well and so it’s much more

Difficult to work withso again easiest way to improve youraudio is to get it as close to thesubject as possible that involves boompoles that first shotgun mics and stufflike that but honestly you know you can

Get cheap shotgun mics they they makethem on you know eBay for 50 hundredbucks just to get yourself started andthen when you move up you know this isuh is actually one of the better ones wehave and the mic inside there that’s

That’s just a blimp around the mic themic inside there’s only 250 bucks andthat’s what we use for all of our workit’s a rode ntg-2like you want to cover that later youwant me well I was gonna cover that in

My thinking for you like I just gottamake mention of that but I can answer itnow I’m just guessing around time butbasically uh like it one of the in thereon our film we are in a location wedidn’t have control over the kini so the

Air conditioning went on and off so Ididn’t have a continuity of sound sosometimes it be on while recording andsometimes would be off so you’d have youknow and other times that’s not so Iwould record room tone so I can overlay

That on the tracks that need to tocreate a continuity so there are noharsh cuts like when I’m cutting at itso you know you have that room tone inthere and it also can be it’s just agreat idea you know you have cars

Passing by and stuff like that I mean ifyou have to cut dialogue and you hear acar passing by it to cut while the carspassing through all of a sudden you’renot gonna hear the car anymore you knowso it’s kind of helps you with mixing

Style so it’s always a great idea to getyou know however long your scene isgonna be get a little extra yeah thething is there’s never never in reallife do you hear absolutely nothingunless you’re no vacuum and so if you’re

Cutting dialogue and you want to spacesomething outs for emotional impact oryou put like a wide shot in there thatdidn’t have any dialogue over there ifyou have nothing underneath that it’sgonna be really bizarre so I’m mixing

That with with good room tone yeahdepending on your scene like in thisroom you can hear a certain home of thefan the projector and stuff like that mynew there’s one scene where there’s aaquarium in the background so I have

That the other one have a clock becauseI also wanted that kind of the tickingthat we grabbed emotionally that youknowpressure you know so you want to helpset those elements a lot of times too

Sometimes they’ll shoot a scene and thedialogue is too close together and youkind of wish there was a pause there youcan put a closetand so the good rule of thumb is justget about 30 to 60 seconds of room tone

Clean room zone when you’re recordingand that’s literally just hit record onyour camera and have everybody stoptalking and breathe all rightwhat is lighting lighting a lot ofpeople only look at lighting as number

One on this list which is create aproper exposure for the medium beingused film or digital sensors obviouslyyou know you have we talked aboutdynamic range the film is to actuallysee your digital sensor has to see

Something so lighting is gives youproper exposure but more than that infilm lighting is also these other twooptions which are create allows you tocreate depth and illusion of threedimensions in a two-dimensional medium

We talked about how a dolly move in orjib or any sort of movement can allowyou to accentuate the depth anddimension in a scene lighting does thisas well this is a huge part of lightingand in of course the last and most

Important thing is it creates the toneand mood for a scene that’s why adirector of photography is called adirector they direct the light theydirect the mood they direct everythingthat you see from what the director

Tells them it’s supposed to feel like Iwant this to feel like a you know a darkmoody scene you know everybody seen theGodfather I hope at some point in theirlife the visual look of the Godfatherthat now everybody has replicated that

Sepia tone warm tonality was thedirector photographer he just said thisfeels right and he and he set up thatand he started shooting that way withthe warm tonality and the white balanceadjustments on the camera using certain

Film stock and and next thing you knowyou know we’ve got to look that noweverybody’s replicated for generationsand so that is you know the job of adirector photography is to make it feelthe way that you’re supposed to just as

Much as sound lighting is a big factorin that and who’s all heard of the stand3-point lighting technique yeah it’svery commonyou’ve got your key light you fill lightin your back light this is used in

Various demandand various powers to get the look thatyou want here’s an example of aninterview scene we’ve got the key lightlighting her face we have a fill lightthat gives the appropriate amount of

Fill how moody we want it to be if if wewant to be super dark and contrasty wewould have very little fill if we wantit to be bright and sunshiny more of acomedic or light-hearted element then wewould have more fill for example Adam

Sandler comedy stuff like thatthey’re usually over lit – a lot of theactors to have freedom to move aroundand and be able to say something funnyand make sure that they record it sothat is and if you watch any sitcoms on

TV usually they’re they’re brighterlight versus you know shadow like 24 orsomething like that much more dark andand the lighting reflects that of courseand then you have the backlight whichallows for multiple things but most of

All primarily to add separation from thesubject in the background if the shadowside of their face is very dark and thebackground were to be very darkthen you’re gonna they’re gonna be lostso if you need to add separation the two

Ways to do that is either to light thebackground or to light the subject andthat creates separation not alwaysnecessary if you want them to feel likethey’re part of the background thatcould be an element for a dark

Mysterious character that’s fine but ifyou want something someone to stand outit’s very common to backlight a woman ifyou want her to feel you know morefeminine or something like that now wehave of course soft versus hard lighting

This is literally the two fundamentalsof all film lighting all the time a hardlight is just a bare bulb and a softlight is traditionally a light that hasbeen slightly modified at some levelthere’s two ways I should say there’s

Three ways to soften a light the firstway is to physically move the lightcloser or make it larger this this mole2k light if I were to stick it rightnext to somebody it would be very hotit’s a 2000 watt light but it would also

Be relatively soft because the source isphysically larger even though it’s afour now it’s a technically a hard lightthe closer it is and the larger it isit’s actually mimicking a soft light thetwo other ways that most people do it

Would be to shoot through diffusion socell Corp Ohio muslin whatever it may beor bounce off of the source a wall whitewall or a white ceiling this softens thelight and if you have just and and thething about it is you know I have a lot

Of professional lighting gear but youcan get along the same looks with juststuff from Home Depot and knowing how tomodify it is is really the fundamentalof it and if you want a nice backlightto somebody get up there halogen bulb

And point it in their general directionyou’re gonna get a backlight if you wantto soften that guest shower curtain andshoot you that a lot of people do thatnow don’t get too close so you can causefire and that’s another thing Whateley

So get insurance but you’re you you canuse basic stuff it’s literal light isall about understanding light and whatit does this this light this pictureback here I was lighting her with a 4foot by 3 foot soft light so if if you

Were using just a little 24-inch softboxand thing I always see a lot of peopleis they think that a soft light is youknow I just took a sheet of diffusionover my halogen light and now it’s softlight well technically you did shoot

Through diffusion but you didn’t changethe size of the source by much so nowit’s still gonna mimic a hard lightbecause it’s tough if this is the sizeof your light and you put a sheet ofdiffusion over it

Now how much have you changed the sizeof it barely anything so it’s stillgonna mimic a hard light versus if younow put in a large source and you shootthrough that it’s gonna create a softersource on the subject and so

Understanding how light works is gonnaallow you to get really great imageryone of the other things too is directingyour key the key light is the primarylight that lights the subject andthere’s if you light camera side or as

We talked about hi fill content you’regonna get a flatter lighting like we seein the top left I know it’s small butyou can see that the subject is fairlyflatly left there’s no dimensionality tothem that’s fine this was a product

Videoso it doesn’t need to be that you knowthe Apple commercial style versus thisthis is a more intimate candlelit sceneso we’re we’re lighting opposite camerathis is called reverse key and we’re

Because we’re keying opposite camera wesee dimension in her face we have a softlight that’s covering in any blemishesand any wrinkles and then we have aharder life that’s mimicking thecandlelight from the table and so that

Creates dimension and just creates agreat mood and lighting is all aboutcreating the proper tone for each scenethese are all different scenes that I’veshot and all required different levelsof lighting you know this was kind of a

Harder source because it’s you know anindustrial-style feel again saying thesetwo here more hard this was lit to mimicfluorescent lighting from an office roomwe wanted to feel green you wanted tofeel kind of you know droning on and

Boring and mundane versus the bottomones we wanted to feel happier so we’vegot a salon with knots a lot light softlight being poured in we have overheaddiffusion being used for the girl in thepark and then of course a nice soft

Light for the baby and so that’s I meanevery scene is gonna require differentstyle lighting but if you at least gowith the perspective what do I want itto feel like and then kind of categorizesoft light for happiness and hard light

For for a more darker tonality and thenyou start feeling where does the scenefit in there you’re gonna actually beable to create stuff that fits the moodof what you’re wanting and just as muchwith audio you know a proper musical

Score will tell you how to feel thesecond you hear a proper lighting willtell you how to feel the second you seeit you don’t have to tell somebody thatthis is a bad guy you can just see thelighting and feel it and know that

That’s a bad guy right right and that asCraig was saying earlier you know wetalked about the the elements of thatbar and how all the detail that you canput into it but in the end you on yourscript you wrote a bar and in in order

To get all that feeling that you wantthat person to see and hear and and andand look at you have to create that moodjust by themlooking at you can’t you don’t have anarrator it’s not like a book where they

Explain everything to you in detail theyare looking in it for the very firsttime and they have to know how to feelthe second you look at and that’scompletely your job as a cinematographeras a as a videographer and as a

Filmmaker and last thing I will say isfilmmaking is very much a collaborativeprocess and and too many people tryingto do this completely on their own andthey fail miserably and they say wellI’m a horrible filmmaker and and the

Truth is you’ll be a better filmmaker ifyou do this right and you focus on itI’ve written scripts it’s not my strongpointI enjoy lighting I enjoy shooting Ienjoy working with camera gear and

Figuring out all those shot Styles thatI just talked about so for me it’sbeneficial to work with somebody likeCraig who likes to tell storyI’m sure Craig would would say that hisstrong point isn’t in camera or lighting

Or any of that type so his benefit is towork with somebody like myself and thenmoving on I edit just fine I’m not a I’mnot a skillet ER that’s not my my mainpoint of focus versus Shawn as Porter’shimself tremendously into that he’s a

Great editor and he’s great officialeffects and it’s a great asset for himhaving our company so for me to be ableto you know focus on heat that’s hisfocusthat’s his great skill set he’s going to

Elaborate on the the necessity ofediting and the importance of it buthaving a diverse group of people to workwith is just gonna improve the your filmI mean Hollywood films how long are thecredits very long and every person in

There is necessary and you know if youthe more you feed them the more you’llget people to show up so I hope that washelpful and -yeah so definitely to reiterate I knowthat obviously in the infinite film

Community you’re usually the writer thedirector the editor you’re you’re doinga lot of roles and try to get otherpeople involved if you haveaccessibility to them get a freshperspective on telling the story because

It might pull something that you didn’tsee that works great so I just wanted toencourage that all right I try to keepthis short and I designed it to be shortso hopefully that works out that way sobasically there are there are three

Roles that have the most influence onhow story is told you have the writeryou have the director and you have theeditor I think that those are the threemain roles that have the most directinfluence on how the story is being

Portrayed of course you know there’s allaspects have a part of that but thoseare what I view as the main and a bigmistake that I see sometimes whenstarting out with creating video andcrane film is don’t think of editing as

An assembly line like where you justassemble all your pieces and get it outthere but it’s where the emotional flowof your tour your story is toldediting is much more about feeling thanwhat tool you use to cut and mix your

Footage so it’s more about the feel theemotion that’s obviously the main themethat we’ve all run through you’re alltrying we’re trying to convey motionvideo and film is all about conveyingemotion you can convey information

Through many other different things soemotion emotion emotion and story that’sreally your your main things uh I wantedto go ahead and there’s talk about ruleof six that Walter Merc I don’t know ifanyone’s familiar with that he’s a great

Editor he wrote a book called in theblink of an eye great if you’reinterested in editing or you’re aneditor you want to prove your craft -definitely recommend reading that thisis regarding does a cut work you know

When you’re decided to cut how do youdecide when the cutthere’s six the rule of six and this ispretty much in diminishing order mostimportant to less least importantemotion Story number three rhythm for I

Trace number five two-dimensional planeof screen and number six two-dimensionalspace of action I can pull it up there aquick if you’d like I didn’t I just didnotes so I don’t have a presentationready this so now you can see that I’m

Pretty much reading exactly what I’msayinginstead of being a good speakerso emotion not necessarily extremeemotion like our wild emotion becausenot every scene has that it’s it’s it is

Consistent with the emotion of what wewant people to feel here you know is itconsistent with what we want to feel inthis scene you got this one checkpointdoesn’t subtract or district so that’sanother question you ask yourself to

Sign the cut and it should definitelypush this forward and what we are tryingto convey in that scene or in thatsection of where we’re cutting so thatis priority number one storydoes it help tell the story does it

Advance their understanding of what’shappening that’s the other considerationof making the cut and rhythm as if youlook at it as music in a musical sensedoes the cut happen at the right pointdoes it feel with right with the rhythm

Of what we’ve established already sothose three things are the mostimportant things when considering cutsAdobe wants update right now okay youdon’t want to all right so yeah go aheadoh yeah yeah what I do when I’m watching

A clip I am feeling it out I mean whenyou edit it’s all about feeling you knowwe’re dealing with emotion I will goahead and get ready you know I’ll havemy in mark about where you know I’ll setthat I’ll be watching it I try to

Pretend like I’m watching as a person asyou know from different viewpoint andI’ll stop it where I feel it’s naturaland that’s where I’ll go ahead andinsert it and then you go back and forthperfecting that over time but that’s

Where I start I go with what feels rightthat’s where the rhythm comes into playstory in emotion you got to go with whatyou feel in your gut you can always goahead and adjust frames later the otherthree are Ness crucial but play and

Still play an important role if you’relooking at it and splitting the firstthree you’re dealing with you knowmotion story rhythm the last three aremore with continuity which is lessimportant but it can be important to be

Organic you’ve seen continuity problemsin films before that’s because they madean emotional decisionand so the cigarette is half way in thebeginning and full towards the end orwhatever you know it’s it’s more

Important to convey the emotion in thestory and to put it forward to explainthe other three I tracing you might haveseen the studies with advertising whenyou do graphic design where do yourhighs go so where’s the audience looking

Are they looking you know upper rightupper left you want to take that inconsideration when you’re cutting too soare we considering that when we’remaking the cut does the flow the eyemovement from this cut compliment

Complement the next cut if we’re lookingat something you know in the upper rightupper right eye you know this next thingwe won’t do we want to keep the eyesfocused in that area so taking that intoconsideration the feeling you want

Because as an example in that fightscene you want to disrupt that Imovement quite a bit to keep itconfusing chaotic you want to makepeople feel that way thecuz that’s what a fight is there’s a lot

Going on and it’s really confusingunless you’re like Jackie Chan orsomething but you know I mean you’re Igo to have a hard time following sousing those techniques help convey thatemotion and especially with the when

You’re when you mentioned about the slowdolly and when you’re starting to getmore emotional instead of cutting you’rekeeping that I tres focused on thatcharacter it’s less interrupting andyou’re able to the motion stays there

The two to deplane of screen it’sbasically just explaining the problemthat you have of 3d objects or people ina 2d world so you’re filming 3d but it’sshowing up in two dimensions so stagingis a big part of that like Tony attacked

Bella before the rule of 180 has alittle bit to do with that so it’s howyou represent 3d in a 2d space mmmwhether it looks like two characterslooking at each other or if onecharacter’s looking at something else

They might not actually be looking at itbut it’s how it’s conveyed in the 2dworld that you’re showing 2d space ofaction are the people or objects movingaround in 3d space coherently or not anexample is if you got someone starting

Off in the distance running towards thecamera and they keep getting closer butthen you’ve got your cut and they’refurther back obviously it doesn’t makemore sense I mean if you’re doing thaton purpose for specific reason then

Whatever but you know you want to beable to mimic 3d the way things happenin 3d in life to the 2d medium so thosethose three you can do all six itdoesn’t always happen where all six aretogether but usually the first three are

Pretty much pre type and you canseparate those but pretty much you’rethose top three are gonna be what you’rebasing your cut on just that tip 2 isdon’t cut just for the sake of cuttinglike I want to cut every two seconds you

Know so you’re just going methodicallythrough it that’s part of the assemblyline problem yeah it has to feel rightso I’ll find a positive reason to makethe cuthow does it feel

Now situs that’s just a brief overlookon editing it’s all about the emotionalabout the feel it’s not about the toolyou’re using as much and I can help youthe tool can help though so talkingabout a couple of the tools obviously

We’re trying to do it for cheap so freethere are a few free tools out there Ithink you’re all familiar with WindowsMovie Maker it’s sad but it works youhave iMovie on Mac of course that’s thebetter of the two so you do have access

To those for free especially gettingstarting that’s your best place to startyou want to get more advanced there isan actual free professional NLEnonlinear editor called white works it’sbeen used the professional Edition has

Been used before on films they have afree version it’s by edit share they’rea company that does storage solutionsbut it’s lwk Escom so feel free to checkthat out if you want to look intosomething that a little bit more of a

Professional side they can get for freeof course cheap you have sony vegaspinnacle it is l WK Escom if you haveany trouble just google edit share orLightworksof course you know cheap sony vegas

Pentacle pinnacle you can get those forlike under $100 Dolby Premiere Elementsand Final Cut Pro 10 you know that’s Ithink at $300 right now so that’s alittle bit more pricier but great editorfor you know on the cheap and you have

Your professional and I’m not naming allof them here by like Adobe Premiere Proavid media composer and Symphony which alot of broadcasts use and films andfound Cut Pro 7 which I’m not sure onthe availability of that but I’m sure

You can get it out there somewhereanother thing that important thing inthe post-production world is not onlyappear but storage you want to make sureyou backup backup backupcan you imagine creating your film

Getting everything on your computer youdon’t have it backed up you erase thecards your hard drive crashes all thatyou did everything that you did prior isjust all for naught you know it’sdone so you very least have an external

Hard drive or some other drive that youbackup a copy to an exact copy you cando things as far as gets morecomplicated with raidyou know raid 5 get a tower that’sgetting a little more technical but it’s

Got redundancy and it’s fastso backups are very important make sureyou’re backing up your footage or youwill want to kill yourself if you loseit all especially if you take a year toto make that happen

Yeah yeah a lot of times when you see inamateur filmmaking you’ll see where ifsomeone’s talking that cut right to themthere’s a scene in a previous film thatI did where it was two actors andthey’re kind of you know they’re both

Holding each other at gunpoint and it’sspinning you’re gonna have you know I’llbe cutting to an actor but you know theaudio the other actor will be underneaththat so you’ll see the reaction shot oflike if I’m having dialogue with Tony

I’ll be talking but we cut to a reactionshot of Tony and I’m still talking overthat and we see his reaction then hestarts talking so you don’t always needto cut right to when the actor startstalking you can let that overlap that’s

Kind of the basic concept of that and ifyour audio track from the previousperson is extending over and the videostops and the previous video goes overit looks like an L or a J if you you canstart audio into the person so I could

Be talking and then Shaun starts talkingbut we’re still looking at me as I’mwatching him so it just it makes thingsflow betterright so yeah wrapping up sound wetalked a little bit about that with room

Tone continuity of sound and how itdraws you in and having jarring piecesof sound in there where you hear in abunch of background noise also then cutto another piece of dialogue it’s silentand you’re going back forth between that

It really pulls you out of theexperienceyou’re not immersed and you lose themotion sound effects there big thing canmake something mundane feel epic and alot of times if you ever watch crime

Scene it was fully they’re not reallyeven using the actual thing for thesound you know like bones breakingcelery you know using stuff like thatthere’s stuff that sounds better thanthe real thing so make it in on a more

Grander scale of course other parts postgot color grading I won’t really go intothat but that’s overall like when youtalked with the that was kind of donewith the film stock and everything likethat not as much possible with the

Godfather the colors that you’re usinghelps convey motion you know like abluish tone cold and you know warming upthe footage to make it feel much moreloving or whatever so that has a bigplay and on the emotion also you have

Visual effects which a lot of times doesreally have to do with motion what’sgetting more into that especially withlike things like Life of Pi where you’recreating a whole character out of youknow CG elements and you have emotion

Within their face so that’s getting morecomplicated but it can be morecost-effective if you have to do a giantexplosion like I would be doing for aclient that will be doing where we’llblow up a tanker truck and mill the

Intersection we can’t do that in reallife obviously what we could but wedon’t have a budget for it so we’regonna be doing that visually digitallythe visual effects and it’s safer if youwant if you’re interested in visual

Effects of great sight that’s verypopular you want to get a good headstart Ned is Video Copilot net theAndrew Kramer wide gamut of visualeffects and motion graphics that hecovers they’re great tutorials great to

Learn from that’s Video Copilot net andthe two books I would recommend would bein the blink of an eye by Walter Merck Idon’t know if it’s merch or Merck haveno idea and the other one is the eye isquicker and that is by Richard

Peppermintso if you would like to get moreadvanced with editing figure out findout more about the principles of editingthose be great books check out yes nextwave TV is our the tre site at Tony

Started I joined in I don’t do as muchon there as lately but film training alot of things we talked about today wecover that and it’s all free

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