Examining The Best Preserved Mummy In The World | Diva Mummy | Timeline

published on June 29, 2020

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[Music]

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lords and ladies lived it up in luxury

they wanted to go on forever

some of them did what was seen in those

coffins just amazed everyone

this is the best preserved ancient body

ever thought come along on one of

archaeology's most astonishing quests

[Music]

rapping the secrets of the diva mommy

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China one of the world's oldest

civilizations and a modern economic

juggernaut

day and night bulldozers churn up its

ancient soil carving out the foundations

of China's future

uncovering an incredible mystery of its

past no one's found anything that I've

ever seen

remotely equivalent to this

there's nothing else like them anywhere

in the world

[Music]

how did people who died 2,000 years ago

become what may be the best preserved

ancient bodies ever found

[Music]

they look like living people they move

like living people when you look at

their intestines and other internal

organs they're about as close as you get

to a well-preserved fresh body today who

was the woman many have called the

world's most perfect mummy

this is something you never even find in

Egypt Tutankhamun for example comes out

as a sort of shriveled shriveled up

little dissipated corpse compared with

the extraordinary preservation of this

woman enter the world of ancient China's

masters of death

and of money so lifelike

the Egyptians in the dust throughout

life they thought of little else than

continuing life after death there was a

consensus that immortality was there to

be taken if only you could get the

formula right 1972 China isn't yet the

economic powerhouse we see today

it's the time of Mao Zedong's Cultural

Revolution China's leader calls on

devoted youths named Red Guards to rid

their country of decadent ideas

[Music]

in this time of turmoil officials in the

city of Changsha announced one of the

most astonishing archeological

discoveries ever made in China

work crews digging through a hill called

my wand we had stumbled on an ancient

tomb the inside they'd found the body of

a woman who'd been dead for more than

2,000 years

a body reported to be unlike any other

ancient body ever found

Chinese scientists met to discuss the

new discovery but no one wanted to take

responsibility for examining the ancient

corpse

it was not a good time to fail

especially when premier Joe and Lai one

of the most powerful men in China

expected you to succeed premier Joe told

us not to touch ancient treasures unless

we were absolutely sure we wouldn't

destroy them he said that if we damaged

them we would be disrespectful to our

ancestors and to our country so we

generally left anything found in ancient

tombs alone China's most eminent

pathologists declined to autopsy the

body found at ma wantwe

suddenly an obscure junior scientist

named pine long Chung put up his hand as

the saying goes the newborn calves are

not afraid of Tigers I was a fearless

young man and I decided to conduct the

autopsy with senior scientists and

powerful politicians literally breathing

down his neck

pong Leung Chun picked up his scalpel

and began to cut

I wasn't thinking about all the

important people in the room my only

thought was that I'd volunteered to do

this autopsy and now I couldn't fail so

I just focused my mind on figuring out

how this woman died

Hong Ling Chun did not fail and his

autopsy of the woman fell

and we would stun the scientific world

in 1972 Chinese pathologist Paul long

zhang conducted one of history's most

astonishing autopsies on a 2,000 year

old woman so well-preserved Pung and his

colleagues could dissect her like a

modern corpse

her flesh was still soft and elastic her

skin was the same light yellow color it

had been when she was alive she still

had her hair and a wig she'd worn to the

grave

when the autopsy team cut open her skull

their amazement deepened her brain was

only half its normal size but completely

intact

then professor pong made his first

incision into the chest

[Music]

all her internal organs still in place

and looking nearly good as new

the team removed her stomach ovaries and

other organs incredibly there was still

red blood in her veins

[Music]

decades after her modern debut The Mummy

from Malang do we still dazzles and

puzzles the world's top forensic

anthropologists like john verano of

Tulane University what really sets her

apart from other mummified bodies first

of all is the the flexibility of her

limbs when I first saw these limbs being

moved and it's kind of just absolute

flexibility it just kind of made me jump

because I you just don't see that in an

ancient body and I thought don't do that

because you're you know you're gonna

break that arm right off it's something

I'd never seen or thought would be

possible in a body of this age but even

before Paul launched young began to cut

archaeologists already knew that the

lady from Malang doui was no ordinary

mummy

her name was almost certainly singe way

she had died about 160 years before the

birth of Christ and she'd always been a

star

archaeologist Charles Higham knows her

well she was an aristocrat she was a

major member of the ruling family and

she was led a life of considerable ease

of luxury 2,000 years ago

cinge way was the wife of a powerful

Lord named the Marcus of die her modern

home the Hunan provincial museum this

blaze a life-sized reconstruction of her

[Music]

an elegant beautiful woman stares at us

but Professor pons autopsy suggests a

very different look

[Music]

somebody suit you do here so the ladies

body has shrunk quite a bit the wrinkles

on the skin tell us she was quite fat

when she was alive

many people estimate her body weight was

around 70 kilos quite fat

the lady of dyes love affair with dinner

seemed confirmed by the treasures found

in her tomb more than 1,000 artifacts

two-thirds of them connected with food

and drink

[Music]

30 sealed bamboo baskets held everything

from pears plums and soybeans to the

bones of pigs oxen dogs pheasants and

some 10 other animals

we know precisely what she liked to eat

some of our favorite recipes are for

were inscribed and placed in her grave

we find the complete skeleton of a swan

for example there we find

sparrows eggs we find sliced Lotus all

these items were clearly readily

available for her table but the tomb

contained much more than enough food for

the afterlife just because you were dead

didn't mean you stopped dining in style

cinge way planned to eat her eternal

meals of exquisite lacquer dinnerware

the largest set of ancient Chinese

lacquer ever found

draped over her coffin was a beautiful

silk banner showing the dead singe way

making the journey to heaven

[Music]

a souls pilgrimage toward an eternal

banquet

she was taking with her or her wine

containers for example she was taking

all her lack of plates she was taking

the food she was accustomed to she was

taking her recipes and representations

of servants

servants made sure that the afterlife

once she reached paradise I was going to

see a continuation of the sort of things

that she'd been used to everything was

laid out and neat and tidy and orderly

and and and life would indeed have been

exceedingly Pleasant

for cinge way death was a dinner party

that never ended

[Music]

so was life for her on earth as it is in

heaven

meant a little thing like death wouldn't

spoil the fun

the lady of died and her fellow

aristocrats had plenty to celebrate

life in ancient China hadn't always been

so good for centuries China was a deadly

as warring kingdoms tried again and

again to comfort one another even the

rich and powerful spent their lives

fighting to stay alive then in 221 BC

one of history's most remarkable men Qin

Shi Huangdi the first emperor United

China's warring kingdoms for the first

time

[Music]

but when the first emperor died in 210

BC his empire died with him

China plunged into four more bloody

years of war until a rebel peasant

leader founded a new dynasty the Han an

empire contemporary with Imperial Rome

and equally splendid the Han Dynasty

would rule a unified China for the next

400 years the Han Dynasty brought to

China peace prosperity wealth people

were able to as it were go back and

revert to and really enjoying themselves

to party if you like

[Music]

the Lady of Dai would have partied more

than most

dazzling her dinner guests with banquets

they never forget

there would have been a lot of music

there have been a lot of incense that

have been servants coming in and your

beck and call

I think it must have been jolly good fun

[Music]

but in the Han Dynasty living the good

life

was only the beginning

[Music]

your afterlife was going to see a

continuation of the convivial

sophisticated cultured aristocratic life

of the present and therefore you had to

have the body intact to enjoy it all

what's the point of of going to heaven

with all your wine and all your food if

you haven't got a stomach to accommodate

them

immortality was an obsession but not

every attempt at immortality succeeded

the most spectacular effort was the most

spectacular failure

in 1968 soldiers digging a tunnel near

the town of man chained suddenly found

themselves inside a 2000 year old

man-made cavern the Magnificent tomb of

a wealthy king named Liu Xiang

Lucia spent a fortune preparing for a

world-class afterlife

turning his burial chamber into a wine

cellar

[Music]

building himself a comfortable home

inside his tomb and doing everything he

could to ensure his body would never

decompose

King Lucia went to the grave inside a

spectacular burial suit made of over

2,000 pieces of jade sewn together with

thread made of gold

[Music]

it would have taken a single craftsman

literally a decade or more to create one

of those Jade suits Jade is a pure

marvelous treasured substance that had

been valued in China for not just for

centuries but for thousands of years and

by stitching together these Jade wafers

it was felt that the body could be

preserved in perpetuity conferring

immortality upon the person within when

you actually get inside the surviving

suits you find that every single orifice

in the body was also cloaked with Jade

King Liu Xiang's Jade suit must have

cost him a fortune

but as he lay dying thinking of the

eternal party he was about to enjoy he

must have felt it was worth the price

but he was wrong when archaeologists

opened as Jade's suit 2,000 years later

a few bone fragments were all that was

left of the hard-partying King Liu Xiang

even if the lady of die could have

afforded a jade suit she would have been

forbidden to wear it

[Music]

that privilege was reserved for members

of the imperial family like King Lucian

the Emperor's ninth born son

Lu Xiang would have been horrified to

learn that the life of a mere Marcus had

succeeded where he had failed and in

1972 scientists were wondering the same

thing

how did she do it

what they were about to discover what

astonish them even more

[Music]

in 1972 Chinese pathologists autopsy the

body of a woman named Cindy a

one of thousands of death investigations

done in China that year

except that most of those autopsies were

conducted within a few days of death and

singe ways body was over 2,000 years old

[Music]

these rarely seen images allow us to

share the autopsy team's astonishment as

they discovered singe ways incredible

preservation as they weren't they

wondered how could their ancient

ancestors have achieved this

mummification miracle decades later

scientists around the world are still

wondering if she'd only been buried a

year I would be amazed at how

well-preserved she was but to think that

in fact she's been buried for 2,000

years and is still in this condition

it's baffling though question is how is

this possible

at first one incredibly well-preserved

2,000 year old body seemed to be a quirk

of fate

but in 1974 only 300 kilometers north of

cinch ways to Matt Moll want we near the

modern city of Jingzhou

Chinese archaeologists found another

[Music]

a man and just as well preserved as

singe way

[Music]

he had flexible limbs and soft organs

like a fresh corpse

[Music]

but blood in his veins was type a B

[Music]

pathologist woojong beam at the autopsy

team

it was June and very hot we put a lot of

ice on the floor of the dissection rooms

I stood on the ice and worked non-stop

for 8 hours we never expected that our

ancestors could preserve corpses so well

I felt ashamed because in our own time

we couldn't achieve what they had

achieved 2,000 years ago

[Music]

in the Mummy's mouth doctors found a

clay seal revealing his name zwei zwei

was a magistrate who died in 167 BC

about the same time as singe way two of

the ancient world's best preserved

bodies had been buried only a few years

and three hundred kilometers apart and

in China's Yangtze River Valley a part

of the world that seemed to be a

morticians nightmare I would say that

the climate of the Yangtze River Valley

is quite likely one of the worst in the

world in which to preserve human remains

soil in this particular part of the

world of course is very wet very high

humidity

you have very hot and you also very cold

weather and so it would be a huge

challenge to the hand mortician to be

able to preserve a human body forever

when most people think of mummies they

think of a dry mummy wrapped in linen

found in Egypt that's the classic one

the Egyptian approach the internal

organs needed to be removed quickly it

was a hot environment bodies rapidly

decomposed in that type of environment

unless they were treated by having the

organs removed and then quickly salted

and dried

the Chinese method is very different in

terms of the quality of the work it's

it's quite impressive in many ways a

step above what the Egyptians achieved

[Music]

but gentle nation these bodies aren't

mummies mummies are dry bodies easy to

preserve we call our Chinese corpses wet

bodies no one had reported anything like

them before we found this in Twain

[Music]

archaeologist Charles Higham of New

Zealand's Otago University believes

there's only one way to truly appreciate

why Xin Shui looks as good as she does

you have to come here to the hill of MA

want we where she was buried

and see with your own eyes the

incredible work of the men who buried

her

cinge 'we went to paradise inside one of

the largest tombs ever done a massive

inverted pyramid over 12 meters deep

digging this super tomb must have taken

years and cost a fortune

but Charles Higham believes that if we

can go inside the hill of MA wand we we

can actually feel why singe ways tune

builders buried her so far underground

this air-raid shelter lies directly

beneath the tune of singe way and the

first thing you notice when you come

into it is how icy cold it is it's a

sort of natural refrigerator indeed

looking around me I can see that the

whole place is stacked with stored

bananas I suppose that they've kept them

here to stop them from ripening too

quickly I think this is probably one

reason why the Chinese builders of this

tomb chose to dig it so deep they knew

that down there at this great depth that

the powers of preservation of this

really very very chilly atmosphere I

would do their work in perpetuity

but natural refrigeration wasn't the

only thing cinge ways and bombers

understood this pattern pressed into her

skin reveals another of their powerful

defenses against the cave

[Music]

whoever buried cinge way wrapped her

body as tightly as they could in an

astounding 20 layers of silk this silk

cocoon suffocated bacteria living inside

her body

bacteria which normally begin devouring

a human body as soon as it dies

[Music]

but even this wasn't enough for singe

ways master morticians they placed her

wrapped body in no fewer than four

coffins each designed to fit tightly

inside one another and each sealed with

a thick coating of raw lacquer

then they encased these coffins inside a

massive burial chamber over six meters

long over six meters wide and nearly

three meters high they surrounded the

burial chamber with five tons of

charcoal and a moisture blocking layer

of clay over a metre thick

[Music]

finally they pack the tomb shaft tightly

with soiled and capped the top with a

mound of earth some 50 metres high

[Music]

cinge weighs and bombers had

vacuum-sealed her for eternity but was

it enough to make her the mummy we

marvel at today similar tombs deep tombs

and cool environments in other parts of

the world have not preserved bodies to

this degree

they just haven't done it and so to me

there has to be some additional element

dead singe ways and bombers have one

more trick up their sleeves an ancient

text may reveal a clue a text that gives

detailed instructions for embalming the

dead

it says that after washing a corpse

embalmers kept it cold and wrapped it in

layers of clothing it also says that

after they placed the wrapped body in

its coffin the embalmers did one more

thing before they closed the lid they

poured in a mysterious liquid

could that liquid have played a decisive

role in preserving bodies some think

it's possible

another astonishing find would deepen

even further this deepest mystery of the

diva mummy in the 1970s Chinese

scientists wondered at the lifelike

corpses of the lady since way and the

magistrates way 2,000 year old bodies

from the Han Dynasty buried deep in the

earth inside air and watertight coffins

[Music]

it seemed that the key to their

preservation had been ancient morticians

sophisticated techniques for protecting

them from water and air

but there was another even more

incredible possibility archaeologists

found since way and the magistrates way

floating in a mysterious reddish fluid

[Music]

ancient Chinese texts tell of embalmers

pouring a special liquid into coffins

just before they sealed the home were

singe way and the magistrates way

floating in that liquid a long-lost

elixir for preserving human flesh

[Music]

chemical analysis of the coffin fluid

only deepened its mystery it was mildly

acidic and contained traces of cinnabar

a mercury or and an ancient Chinese

medicine for prolonging life

pasen and cinnabar could have helped

kill flesh destroying bacteria but

experts have never stopped debating how

the fluid got into the coffins some

insist it was merely water that leaked

into the tombs today one of the world's

greatest authorities on the Han Dynasty

bodies believes he's found the answer in

1974 pathologist Wu Zhong be performed

the autopsy of the magistrate's way when

archaeologists opened sways coffin it

was filled with fluid but strangely so

was his burial chamber even though it

was surrounded by clay excavators found

nearly a metre of water inside

they could even measure its depth from

the marks it left on his coffin how

could water have penetrated sways

vacuum-sealed burial chamber and his

tightly nested lacquer sealed coffins

professor wu believes they weren't as

watertight as they seemed huge anomalies

no matter how well sealed and painted

with a coffin wood it will still have

microscopic holes according to professor

wu eastern China's waterlogged soil

slowly rose around sways burial chamber

differences in atmospheric pressure

between the water saturated earth and

the dry burial chamber forced

microscopic molecules of water vapour

through invisible cracks in the chambers

wood

when enough moisture has squeezed

through it formed a water drop inside

the burial chamber multiply that drop by

2,000 years and you get a lot of water

we did an experiment we made a small

coffee sealed a Titan and placed it in

water after just four and a half years

the coffin was full of water so we

concluded that the coffin liquid comes

from outside

but singe 'we also had fluid in her

coffin and there wasn't any in her

burial chamber

since the 1970s no one's been able to

resolve the coffin fluid debate now

another discovery has reinvigorated that

debate Leanne Yum Goong is a small

industrial city on China's Seacoast

about halfway between Shanghai and

Beijing like other Chinese cities its

modernizing at lightning speed

in July 2002 local museum curator jojje

and pain got a phone call from a road

crew who'd uncovered a strange wooden

box

I knew there were a lot of Han Dynasty

Timms around higher I told the road room

to stop digging and told my staff to be

at the site first thing in the morning

the next morning a museum cameraman

recorded these images never before seen

outside China of the archaeologists at

work

by evening they'd excavated three

coffins inside a burial chamber finding

only bones

they decided to transport a fourth

coffin to the museum for safekeeping

overnight

[Music]

the next morning museum workers

struggled to pry open its tightly sealed

lid until something inside made them

stop

[Music]

I was about to touch it when my fellow

workers shouted they are legs human legs

I was shocked and pulled back my hand

then I pried the board up and took a

closer look it was a leg I was scared

and jumped back in my 24 years as an

archaeologist I had never seen a corpse

that hadn't decomposed the Leon youngin

Museum found itself in charge of a 2000

year old body of Lin Kuei pain the wife

of a han dynasty efficient decomposing

before their eyes in the open hair and

the 40-degree summer heat

jegos will nobody I ran back to my

office and called a group of experts in

Beijing asking them what I should do but

the experts told me that they didn't

know thank you I was stunned if the

experts in Beijing did he know what was

I going to do a few anxious phone calls

later job Jinping found his expert in

Shanghai home of some of China's most

beautiful buildings

this is not one of them

but Professor Shu young Ching likes

coming here to visit some old friends

[Music]

very old friends

professor Xu is one of China's foremost

forensic anthropologists he's devoted

his career to understanding the

mysteries of preserving human flesh

[Music]

this is his masterpiece yen Foose Inc an

army officer martial arts expert and

practicing Buddhist Jan's been dead

about 700 years but he's in remarkably

good shape for his age

that's because professor Xu has been

injecting him with an experimental

preservative developed to keep modern

Chinese corpses looking good for their

funerals yon fou Singh is still flexible

and moist

three years after archaeologists opened

his tomb and exposed him to the air

we've done experiments to see if there's

any bacteria or mold inside the body we

couldn't find any so we think this

formula is very effective in body

preservation

shoo dong ting help Liang yung kong

museum preserve the body of lin dawei

people he consulted with the team of

scientists who rushed to Liang yung gong

to study the newest miracle mummy

they peered into her with non-invasive

body scans far more sophisticated than

anything used on since way or the

magistrates way but in the end only the

knife would reveal her secrets in this

never-before-seen video filmed

exclusively for this program the team

autopsies Lin Kuei pain and marvels at

her ancient and bombers brilliant

achievement

[Music]

I want it open in our modern forensic

work the bodies we see have badly

decayed after only a few hours in summer

and in winter after a few days it's

inconceivable that this corpse can be in

such good condition

after more than 2,000 years

[Music]

today scientists in the city of Nanjing

are studying Lin Kuei pink and they're

interested in more than just her

incredibly well-preserved body

[Music]

Lin Kuei pings coffin was also full of

fluid the Nanjing team is testing that

fluid to see if it will yield any clues

to the elixir mystery the tests have

revealed high levels of magnesium and

salt

the salt could have been a preservative

or just salty water leaking in from

Liang yung Kong's coastal soil

perhaps further tests will tell but for

now all anyone can do is choose sides in

an ongoing debate so you want a bit of

sleep pushing the coffin liquid isn't a

formula for preservation like the

formulas we use today in ancient times

there was no chemical method for

preserving bodies I would lean towards

the idea that it's it's it was an elixir

something that someone very cleverly

developed to preserve the body now it's

not such a strange idea because humans

for thousands of years have been

preserving food to extend that idea

logically to the preservation of a body

particularly whether it's a loved one or

an elite figure who is great importance

to his or her people it's not a not

really a stretch for me who was in unit

8 if liquid had seeped into the coffin

it would have brought in bacteria which

would have rotted the corpse and healing

so I think when the corpse was buried

liquid was already in the coffin

but even if we don't know why cinch way

and her fellow mummies are so well

preserved the lady of dye has told us

more than any other month about the life

and death of an ancient human being

and it's been a revelation China's diva

mummy has overturned some of our most

cherished beliefs about our distant

ancestors

to forensic scientists the Lady of Dai

is like a time machine most ancient

remains are so badly decomposed

they tell us little about the lives and

deaths of the people they once were

but China's diva mummy can tell us

almost as much as a fresh corpse

[Music]

it's really an exceptional kind of

snapshot though the person's death but

not only that moment of time of death

but all of the events leading up to that

moment of death studying the body of sin

Shui was like making a house called

2,000 years in the past and when the

doctors examined her they got a few

surprises

while she was hosting all those dinner

parties the Lady of Dai was all

so host in some very unwelcome guests

tapeworms lived happily inside

[Music]

so did colonies of width worms and other

parasites

[Music]

living with parasites would have been

unpleasant but it wouldn't have been

fatal

something else killed the lady of die

something that rewrote medical history

[Music]

cardiologist dr Samuel Chun has studied

clues to cinch ways cause of death

the ladies funeral banner shows her

using a king to walk to heaven even

though she was only fifty years old when

she died 2,000 years later x-rays

revealed the answer a fused disc in her

lower spine

back also has said why she was so

overweight

centuries before television the lady of

died had been one of history's earliest

couch potatoes

she can't wait at all and she doesn't

have to do very much exercise and that's

why while she gets fact since weighs

autopsy revealed another crucial clue

inside her stomach scientists found over

100 perfectly preserved melon seeds all

of them undigested her stomach hadn't

had the hour at needed to break them

down before she died

[Music]

well I trying to imagine what she was

doing it in hour before she died she

fought very heavy meal the last part of

meal watermelon

and she like them was now there much but

she a in such a hurry

that's just what all of the things there

was one more clue the most telling to

evolve

this cross-section of a coronary artery

shows it's almost completely closed by

deposits of fat but this artery doesn't

belong to a modern heart patient it

belonged to CIN shui

cinge weighs fat blocked artery

astonished cardiologists who believed

that heart disease didn't exist in

ancient times and it allowed them to

reconstruct the final moments of her

life

within an hour after she gorged on melon

the lady of died felt a sudden sharp

pain

but it might not have been in her heart

sin-shoo a had gall stones another

affliction caused by eating too much fat

one stone was stuck in the opening of

her bile duct it wunst her into

excruciating pain

[Music]

the final fatal blow to it already

weakened heart

[Music]

eternity didn't turn out like sin Shui

planned instead of partying forever with

her friends she lies under the wandering

gaze of descendants living in a China

she could never have imagined

between the moment of her death and the

moment of her discovery something

happened to the lady of die that made

her the most astonishing ancient mummy

ever found

[Music]

was it wrapping her in silks and sealing

her inside airtight waterproof coffins

[Music]

was it laying her to rest inside a super

tomb that kept out the forces of decay

or was it an ancient elixir of

immortality a secret formula that still

eludes all attempts to prove or disprove

its existence

as a booming China builds its future

scientists wonder when bulldozers will

uncover yet another perfect mummy

and demolish even more of what we think

we know about the ancient past

[Music]

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to Earth's residence which was situated here was said to be more splendid than his houses in other places it was made of polished boards and surrounded wi...
Before you watch this video consider to subscribe to learn more about our history and hittable button to be notified when a new video is uploaded the united kin...
haven't asked this bridge we received by that Lord Montezuma with about two hundred Chiefs all barefooted and dressed in a kind of livery very rich accordi...
We are in the summer of 1940 more than 78 years ago the world's who was at war Europe who was shocked by a very rapid expansion of the German forces in Pola...
you'll request that I would send you an account of my uncle's death in order to transmit a more exact relation of it to posterity deserves my acknowled...
This video is made in collaboration with alma-tadema a channel that is focusing on islamic history i really recommend to watch the video till the end to underst...
Wednesday May 30th towards nine o'clock in the morning we the judges repaired to the place of the Old Market in Rouen we were assisted by the Reverend Fathe...
Is the 12th century lately around eleven 6et Temujin was born Temujin the future Genghis Khan came from a clan that had a tradition of power and rule he was the...
I why the godlike heaven bread Turkish wise cog on I have mounted my throne here from the beginning to the end of my words first and foremost ye my younger bro...
Genghis Khan named his third son the charismatic okeyday a sin successor before he died in 1227 according to Mongol tradition Genghis Khan was buried in a secre...
To overtime of ramzan itis Egypt so the priests told me was in always well governed and greatly prospered but Cheops who was the next king brought the people to...
the Dutch colonial empire was made of the overseas trading posts and territories across the world controlled and administered by the Dutch trading companies Du...
I am Darius the great king the King of Kings the king of Persia the king of the provinces the son of Heist aspies the grandson of Assamese the Achaemenid thus...
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