Dubnium – Periodic Table of Videos

published on July 13, 2020

Element 105 w m– was the shortest video we made at 45 seconds I know very little about W I'm not sure anybody knows much about it and I realized there was a lot more to say about it than we did the first time and in particular I have a really nice sample which is relevant

Which I'll tell you about in a minute no this is not a sample of dubnium but dope Neum like all the elements in this part of the periodic table can only be made synthetically by accelerating a light atom into a heavier one and they

Fuse together in this case the light atom is neon which has atomic number 10 and the heavy atom is americium atomic number 95 10 plus 95 makes 105 one of the reasons that dubnium is so important in my view is because there was a huge

Argument between the first experiments when it was first synthesized which were in the early 1970s and the time when it was finally named which was in the late 1990s and really it was dubnium and seaborgium and the arguments about the

Naming of these elements that really sorted out the Rayleigh amicable way that we now have of considering the discovery of these new super-heavy elements the original experiments were done in a place called do burner which

Brady and I have visited where the joint Institute for Nuclear Research is located this is a big Center for accelerators in Russia and you need accelerators to accelerate up the light ions to Smashing to the heavy target and

The difficulties you only make these elements one atom at a time so it isn't as if you have a large lump of the material to analyze the other problem is they're very short-lived anything from seconds to a few hours so you can't

Accumulate a lot of atoms the way you detect them is that you detect their decay they give out gamma rays and they also form daughter compounds which themselves decay and you can predict with some accuracy what energy of gamma

Rays you would expect and then quite quickly you get too radioactive elements so you can work backwards the problem is that if you want to synthesize really or as stable an atom as possible you need to have as

Many neutrons as possible in your combined atom the options for making dubnium element 105 with a large excess of neutrons is not very great so they never managed to synthesize any very stable isotopes the difficulty came that

A rival group in america in berkeley discovered the elements at the same time and there was a huge argument of priority we discovered it first there was an interesting meeting between Seaborg and flew off the leader of the

Russian team and they tried to resolve this argument but it was unsuccessful and this led to the idea after some considerable argument of forming a committee that would look at the evidence from the different teams an

Independent committee and decide who should take the priority for a particular discovery and in the case of dubnium it was decided the berkeley in Dubna team had discovered it more or less at the same time then why was it

Named after do that I think there was then a friendly agreement that it should be named after Donna not least because Berkeley already had three elements named in its own californium and are–some and berkelium plus Seaborg

Younger but seaborgium was named slightly later but at the same time was there a bit of horse trading going on do you think or but well you know we'll give you an element if you give us an element or I suspect but it was also

Complicated because when they finally made the decision they also named the elements that had been discovered in dumb start meitnerium hassium and so on so they were all named more or less simultaneously the thing that I think is

Really remarkable is that although they have made relatively few atoms of dubnium they managed to do a whole series of experiments that can tell you quite a lot about the chemistry dubnium comes

Immediately underneath tantalum in the periodic table so you would expect the chemistry of dubnium to be really quite like tantalum but it turns out when they did experiments that it was perhaps slightly more like niobium which is the

Element immediately above tantalum in that group these are experiments that are just done with a few atoms they're looking at the formation of different sorts of compounds and how these compounds for example stick to a piece

Of glass or don't stick to a piece of glass or whether if you precipitate them say with a niobium compound does the radioactivity precipitate or does it stay in solution the reason why these things are interesting is because as the

Atoms get bigger and heavier the relativistic effects caused by the electrons traveling at very high speeds lead to the possibility that the periodic table the periodic properties may break down so it's really quite

Important that dubnium shows the properties of its own group in the periodic table which shows at least at element 105 the periodic properties still behave reasonably as one would expect this sample here is a piece of

Granite sort of red Russian granite which I picked up on the bank of the river Volga which flows through the city of Dubner past the Institute when Brady and I went here so I got my piece of granite and my double knife mug which I

Used for drinking from I think the really important lesson from dubnium is that when it was first synthesized there was huge tension between the different groups around the world that were making these elements

But now it's realized that as we go further and further along the periodic table making heavier and heavier elements the only way that we're going to succeed as scientists is if everybody works together in a collaborative and

Friendly way so I think you should see dubnium as the start of this collaboration which now as Brady and I have seen is really warm between the various groups involved thank you so much for watching this video and down in

The video description I'll put links from our trip to Dubner along with other videos about super-heavy elements and also about not so heavy elements and if you're looking for something different why not check out my channel objectivity

Where you can watch videos about historic scientific objects like this and this and this as well and more recently this video about the history of driverless cars and well I'll let you find out about this thing for yourself

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