Biology: Cell Structure I Nucleus Medical Media

by birtanpublished on September 6, 2020

Cells are the smallest living units of an organism all cells have three things in common no matter what type of cell they are all cells have a cell membrane which separates the inside of the cell from its environment cytoplasm which is a jelly-like fluid and DNA which is the

Cell's genetic material there are two broad categories of cells the first category is eukaryotic cells they have organelles which include the nucleus and other special parts eukaryotic cells are more advanced complex cells such as

Those found in plants and animals the second category is prokaryotic cells they don't have a nucleus or membrane-enclosed organelles they do have genetic material but it's not contained within a nucleus prokaryotic

Cells are always one celled or unicellular organisms such as bacteria so what are organelles organelles little organ organelles are the specialized parts of a cell that have unique jobs to perform

Let's start with the nucleus the control center of the cell the nucleus contains DNA or genetic material DNA dictates what the cell is going to do and how it's going to do it chromatin is the tangled spread-out form of DNA found

Inside the nuclear membrane when a cell is ready to divide DNA condenses into structures known as chromosomes the nucleus also contains a nucleolus which is a structure where ribosomes are made after ribosomes leave the nucleus they

Will have the important job of synthesizing or making proteins outside the nucleus the ribosomes and the rest of the organelles float around in cytoplasm which is the jelly-like substance ribosomes may wander freely

Within the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum sometimes abbreviated as ER there are two types of ER rough ER has ribosomes attached to it and smooth ER doesn't have ribosomes attached to it the endoplasmic reticulum

Is a membrane enclosed passageway for transporting materials such as the proteins synthesized by ribosomes proteins and other materials emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum in small vesicles where the Golgi apparatus

Sometimes called the Golgi body receives them as proteins move through the Golgi body their customized into forms that the cell can use the Golgi body does this by folding the proteins into useable shapes or adding other materials

On to them such as lipids or carbohydrates vacuoles are sac-like structures that store different materials here in this plant cell the central vacuole stores water going back to the animal cell you will see an

Organelle called a lysosome lysosomes are the garbage collectors that taken damaged or worn out cell parts they are filled with enzymes that break down this cellular debris the mitochondrion is an organelle that is the powerhouse for

Both animal and plant cells during a process called cellular respiration the mitochondria make ATP molecules that provide the energy for all of the cell's activities cells that need more energy have more mitochondria meanwhile the

Cell maintains its shape through a cytoskeleton the cytoskeleton includes the thread like micro filaments which are made of protein and microtubules which are thin hollow tubes some organisms such as plants that are

Photo autotrophic meaning they capture sunlight for energy have cells with an organelle called a chloroplast the chloroplast is where photosynthesis happens it's green because it has a green pigment called chlorophyll plant

Cells also have a cell wall outside of their cell membranes that shape support and protect the plant cell animal cells never have a cell wall there are many other unique structures that only some cells have here are just a few in humans

For example the respiratory tract is lined with cells that have cilia these are microscopic hair like projections that can move in waves this feature helps trap inhaled particles in the air and expels them when you cough

Another unique feature in some cells is flagella some bacteria have flagella a flagellum is like a little tail that can help a cell move or propel itself the only human cell that has a flagellum is a sperm cell in summary remember

Eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells with a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles while prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms without these things all cells have a cell membrane cytoplasm and genetic material

And even though only plant cells have chloroplasts both plant and animal cells have mitochondria

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