Alexander the Nice Half 4

published on July 2, 2020

[Music]

at the age of just 22 alexander ruler of

the small Greek kingdom of Macedonia had

led an invasion of the vast Persian

Empire

after a string of victories he smashed

Persian military power at the Battle of

Gaugamela and took the Persian throne

for himself now in 330 BC Alexander

continued his march east his goal to

find and kill Bessus a persian usurper

claiming to be the rightful king and to

subjugate the Empire's

eastern provinces

[Music]

Alexander headed first for aria today

part of Afghanistan where the Persian

governor sati personís had launched a

revolt after initially pretending to

submit to Alexander the rebellion was

crushed when sati Barzani is killed in

single combat by a greek cavalry officer

nearby Alexander founded the city of

Alexandria arianna modern air at one of

around a dozen cities that Alexander

would eventually found almost all

bearing his name Alexander marched on

toof Rada the Macedonian Court had a

long tradition of plots and

assassination six years before

Alexander's own father King Philip had

been murdered by his bodyguard

he was now informed that Philotas

commander of his companion cavalry but

uncovered a plot to assassinate

Alexander but kept it secret

Philotas and his father Parmenion were

among the most respected of Alexander's

commanders and had played crucial roles

in all his great victories but when

Philotas confessed under torture

Alexander had him executed then sent

assassins back to Egbert Anna where

Parmenion was governor to kill him

before he even heard of his son's death

and had a chance to turn against

Alexander

in 3:29 Alexander resumed his pursuit of

Bessus enroute he founded the city of

Alexandria era cozia modern Kandahar in

southern Afghanistan as he reached

Kunduz besos was betrayed by his own men

and handed over in Chains Alexander sent

him back to Persia for execution as a

Kingslayer

Alexander pushed on into modern

Tajikistan where the sogdians rose up

against him he had to fight off attacks

by local tribes and take several towns

by assault

on the banks of the Jack Sartre's River

he founded the city of Alexandria as

Scotty meaning Alexandria the furthest

so named because he had at last reached

the limit of the Persian Empire

this frontier was frequently raided by

nomads known to the Greeks as silly ins

[Music]

Alexander lured them into a decisive

battle near the Czechs artis

[Music]

the result was a crushing victory for

the Macedonian King that put an end to

the raids but fighting against Bactrian

and Sogdian tribes continued frustrating

Alexander and tying him down in a

difficult guerilla war

[Music]

by now many of the Macedonian troops

were unhappy with Alexander most had not

seen their homes in years but their

kings seemed bent on conquest without

end what was worse he'd begun to adopt

the rituals and dress of their defeated

Persian enemy customs they viewed as

effeminate and decadent

[Applause]

at maricon de modern Samarkand after a

furious drunken argument

Alexander killed cleitus the black

[Music]

cleitus had been one of Alexander's best

generals and the man who'd saved his

life at the Battle of the Granicus

Alexander was full of remorse but his

growing arrogance was alienating more

and more old comrades when he tried to

make his countrymen perform the

traditional Persian ritual of pross

Kinesis frustrating themselves before

the king he crossed a line to Greeks

this was blasphemy only a god was worthy

of such respect and Alexander was forced

to back down

in Bactria another plot to assassinate

Alexander was uncovered this time the

ringleader was a royal page one of the

sons of Macedonian nobility who attended

the King her male Asst had become

murderously bitter towards Alexander

over a perceived injustice he and his

accomplices were tortured and then

stoned to death

Camus thinnies Alexander's official

historian was also implicated in the

conspiracy he was thrown in prison where

he later died

that summer in 327 according to legend

Alexander became captivated by the

beauty of Roxana daughter of a bacterium

Lord their marriage was also a sound

political move helping to end local

revolt against his rule and allowing him

to continue his advance into modern

Pakistan and India

[Applause]

Alexandr now prepared to subdue the

Persian empires most eastern provinces

which had yet to recognize his kingship

[Music]

to do so he would first have to cross

the Hindu Kush mountains and reach the

Indus River Valley

advancing in two columns his army won a

series of skirmishes against the aspasie

and a Cikini

as they fought their way into what's now

the Swat valley of northern Pakistan

after a fierce siege Alexander took the

Athenian capital of Messiah according to

legend it was ruled by a beautiful Queen

Claire ffice who bore Alexander a son

and was allowed to keep her throne

the ruler of Taxila near modern

Islamabad had formed an alliance with

Alexander

together they marched to face poorest

king of Paris at the Battle of the hide

a space

it was Alexander's costliest battle as

poor is's war elephants inflicted

terrible casualties amongst the Greeks

but despite Horace's fearless leadership

the battle ended in a decisive victory

for Alexander winning him control of the

Punjab

Alexander wanted to push on into India

to reach the Great River which ancient

Greek geographers said formed the edge

of the world but at the River High

phases known today as the BS is army

mutiny

[Music]

his men had marched thousands of miles

for countless battles and not seen their

homes in eight years they'd heard rumors

of gigantic armies waiting for them in

India they refused to go any further

Alexander was furious but had to turn

the army around he followed the rivers

of the Punjab to the sea a journey that

took ten months the way he defeated the

Marlins but while leading the assault on

their capital was wounded in the chest

and nearly killed

[Music]

[Applause]

on reaching the coast part of the army

under me arcus ordered ships and return

to Persia by sea sailing through the

Straits of Hormuz and entering the

Persian Gulf

it was one of the great ancient voyages

of exploration as these waters had been

previously unknown to Greeks

[Music]

meanwhile Alexander led the rest of the

army back by land through the gate rosy

and desert today in southern Pakistan

but extreme heat and shortages of food

and water led to terrible suffering but

many deaths among his army

on his return to Persia Alexander

executed several of his viceroys and

governor's men accused of ruling

unjustly and robbing temples and tombs

during his long absence in the east

at Sousa he arranged a magnificent mass

marriage of Macedonian officers to 80

Persian Nobel women to strengthen bonds

between his two kingdoms Alexander

himself married two persian princesses

he also paid all his soldiers debts and

ordered 30,000 youths from across the

empire to be trained in the Macedonian

art of war

but at opus his Macedonian troops

mutinied they were offended by

Alexander's apparent preference for

Persian advisors and Persian ways

Alexander had the ringleaders executed

and made a speech to the men reminding

them of the glories they'd won together

and leading eventually to an emotional

reconciliation

[Music]

a tech batana Alexander's closest and

most trusted friend if I still died of

fever the King was grief-stricken when

days without eating had ordered a period

of public mourning across the Empire

Alexander waged a successful campaign

against the mountain Raiders of cocea

who not even the Persian kings had been

able to subdue

returning to Babylon he was met by

embassies from distant peoples come to

recognize his greatness

Ethiopians Libyans European Syrians

lucania pne's Etruscans calls and

Iberian 's

alexander's battery and wife Roxana was

now pregnant but as he planned his next

campaign to Arabia and beyond

he developed a sudden fever and died

days later

aged just 32

[Music]

the cause of Alexander's death has never

been established it may have been

malaria cholera typhus or poison

[Music]

[Music]

Alexander died undefeated in battle his

reputation as a brilliant fearless and

daring military commander remains

undimmed his decade-long campaign

created one of the largest empires ever

known stretching from Greece to Pakistan

but it was vast and unstable held

together only by his own brilliance and

name Alexander left no plans for his

succession and his generals soon began

fighting among themselves to carve out

their own empires in the wars of the

successors Alexander's widow Roxana and

his young son were murdered

his own gold sarcophagus on route to

Macedonia for burial was hijacked and

ended up in Alexandria in Egypt

today its location remains one of the

world's great unsolved mysteries

few men have ever had such an impact on

the course of history as Alexander the

Great the breathtaking achievements of

his short life assured in the

Hellenistic age as Greek ideas spread

across the territory of his former

Empire fusing with local traditions to

trigger new developments in art science

government and language

[Music]

some of the successor kingdoms to his

great empire were short-lived

others endured for centuries but all in

turn would fall to new forces and in the

West to the rising power of Rome

research and artwork for this video

comes from Osprey publishing extensive

range of books on ancient history every

Osprey book examines a particular battle

or campaign or combat unit in

authoritative meticulous detail and with

more than 3000 titles they cover

everything from ancient warfare to

modern conflict visit their website to

see their online catalog thank you to

all the patreon supporters who made this

video possible and to the channel

Invicta find out more about key moments

from the past in their moments in

history series

[Music]

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