Alexander the Nice Half 3

published on July 2, 2020


in 334 BC Alexander 21 year old ruler of

the small Greek kingdom of Macedonia led

an invasion of the vast Persian Empire

it seemed impossible odds but thanks to

Greek military dominance and Alexander's

fearless leadership he won two great

battles against the Persians at the

river Granicus and at Issus


having subdued Persian lands west of the

Euphrates River he now headed east into

the Empire's heartland seeking a final

showdown with the Persian King Darius

the third

receiving news that a great Persian army

led by Darius had assembled at Gaugamela

near modern Mosul in Iraq he made

straight for it

this was derailleurs his last chance to

stop Alexander and Alexander's chance to

smash Persian power once and for all



Darius had chosen to fight on open

ground where his advantage in numbers

would be more telling his soldiers had

also worked hard to clear and flatten

the terrain to make it suitable for

Persian war chariots by modern estimates

the Persian army was between 50 and 80

thousand strong and made up of

contingents from across the Empire

infantry from Syria and Babylonia

cavalry from Armenia India and Central

Asia up to 200 sized chariots even a

handful of war elephants Alexander's

army was smaller and may have been

outnumbered by as much as two to one he

deployed his units in their usual

formation on the left flank Thracian and

Thessalian cavalry commanded by Pro

Manian in the center the Macedonian

Veterans of the Phalanx each armed with

their 18-foot sarissa Pike on the right

flank Alexander with his elite cavalry

who companions and his best infantry the

high pacifists these were the units with

which Alexander planned to launch his

main attack Greek hoplites formed a

second line and supported both wings

which were angled back to guard against

encirclement by the Persians


the battle began when Alexander led his

wing out to the right a move that took

the Persians by surprise could Alexander

really be trying to encircle their huge


versions mirrored his movement taking

troops away from their center to

outflank Alexander and prevent him

leaving the area they'd feared for the

Persian chariots but Alexander's unusual

maneuver was a trap to entice the

Persians to weaken their center when he

saw that it had worked he ordered his

Greek cavalry to charge to keep the

Persians fixed in position

a giant cavalry battle developed on the

right wing

Darius meanwhile judging this to be the

decisive moment unleashed his chariots

but expert Adriana's javelin throwers

took out forces and crews while the

Greek infantry opened lanes allowing the

chariots to pass harmlessly through

now Alexander led his companion cavalry

and parts of the macedonian phallanx in

a headlong charge straight at the

weakened Persian center fighting his way

towards derailleurs himself the sudden

ferocity of Alexander's assault through

the Persians into panic the center of

the army broke and ran King Darius

himself leading the rout

but Alexandra's left wing was in serious


Parmenion facing a huge onslaught by

Persian cavalry was virtually surrounded

Indian and Scythian horsemen had even

ridden through a gap in the Greek line

but rather than wheeling and attacking

the Greeks from behind they carried

straight on to loot their camp

and he sent a desperate appeal to

Alexander for help the king abandoned

his pursuit of two rious

regrouped and charged the Persian right



it was the hardest and bloodiest

fighting of the battle claiming the

lives of 60 of alexander's companions

finally as news of de rias's flight

spread across the battlefield the last

persian horsemen turned and fled


the Battle of Gaugamela was a stunning

and complete victory for Alexander

according to ancient sources he lost

just a few hundred men while the

Persians lost thousands Alexander had


dereyes his great army and now the road

to Babylon the Empire's main capital lay

open the Macedonian King entered the

great city in triumph recognized by

Persian officials as its new rightful

ruler so too at the city of Susa where

Alexander ceremonially took his seat

upon the royal throne of Persia in the

Zagros Mountains that a pass known as

the Persian gates a courageous Persian

force held up Alexander's army for a


the Greeks eventually found a mountain

path that bypassed their position

allowing them to encircle and wipe out

the defenders in early 330 BC Alexander

reached Persepolis the Empire's

ceremonial capital Alexander wanted to

appear as a liberator to the Persians as

a legitimate successor to King Darius


now he ordered Persepolis to be pillaged

and burnt retribution for the Persian

invasion of Greece and the burning of

Athens sacred temples in 480 BC


Alexander now headed north into media

where Darius had taken refuge in the

royal city avec putana Alexander was

determined to capture Duras but the

fugitive King fled east in the hope of

raising a new army in the provinces of

Parthia Bactria and Saba it was not to

be as Alexander closed in the Persian

king was murdered by one of his own

governors Bessus who then proclaimed

himself the Empire's new ruler


Alexander gave orders for Darius to be

buried in the royal tombs of Persepolis

alongside his ancestors then he paused

to organize his vast new empire

Alexander appointed Viceroy to rule the

provinces on his behalf keeping several

Persians who had sworn loyalty in their

posts then he resumed his march east his

goal to find and kill the usurper Bessus

subjugated the Empire's

eastern provinces

and reach the far edge of the world

research and artwork for this video

comes from Osprey publishing extensive

range of books on ancient history every

Osprey book examines a particular battle

campaign or combat unit in authoritative

meticulous detail and with more than

3000 titles they cover everything from

ancient warfare to modern conflict visit

their website to see their online

catalog thank you to all the patreon

supporters who made this video possible

and to the channel Invicta find out more

about Alexandra's incredible story in

their moments in history series


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