Alexander the Nice Half 2

published on July 2, 2020

in 334 BC Alexander the 21 year old King

of Macedonia led a coalition of Greek

forces against the greatest power of the

age the Persian Empire he led an army of

skilled veterans at its heart men of the

Macedonian phalanx armed with the

18-foot sarissa Pike and the elite

horsemen of his companion cavalry

together at the Battle of the river

Granicus they'd won a first decisive

victory over the Persian army

now as Alexander approached Sardis

capital of the Persian province of Lydia

its commander surrendered without a

fight

but before Alexander could advance

further he needed to neutralize Persian

naval power Persia had a powerful fleet

with major naval bases around the

eastern Mediterranean that could

potentially cut his lines of

communication back to Greece rather than

challenge the Persians at sea Alexander

decided to attack its nearest bases the

Greek coastal cities of my lettuce and

Halicarnassus both put up determined

resistance but were taken by winter

the following spring of 333 BC Alexander

continued his advance into Lesya and

Phrygia at gaudium he was shown the

legendary Gordian not a prophecy said

that whoever could unpick it would rule

all Asia

Alexander simply took his sword and

sliced it in half

meanwhile memnon of roads a skilled

Greek general in Persian service led

Persian warships into the Aegean and

captured the islands of chaos and lesbos

but after Memnon's sudden death from

illness the offensive was abandoned

[Music]

eighteen months had passed since

Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont

and invaded the Persian Empire now

Alexander led his men into Silesia and

was soon poised to cross the noir

mountains into Syria but then the main

Persian army led by King Darius the

third himself emerged behind the Greek

army to the north

Darius was determined to trap and

destroy Alexander's army which he

outnumbered almost two to one so he

blocked Alexander's only escape route by

moving his army to the coastal plain

near Issus just six miles wide the

mountains to sea

the narrow battlefield would force

Alexander to fight but it also prevented

Darius exploiting his huge numerical

advantage his army by some estimates was

up to a hundred thousand strong and

contains some of the finest soldiers in

his vast empire including 10,000 of his

own household troops known as The

Immortals his best cavalry were masked

on his right towards the sea where the

ground was better for horses his best

infantry his Greek mercenary hoplites

formed the center Persian infantry

formed his left wing

Alexander deployed his own army for

battle once again entrusting his left

wing

nearest the sea to Parmenion with the

Greek cavalry and infantry' in the

center as always was the Macedonian

phalanx

[Music]

Alexander positioned himself and his

best troops on the right wing toward the

mountain slopes his elite agree on a

javelin throwers his archers and behind

them the high-pass fists and the

companion cavalry

[Music]

when Alexander saw the strength of the

Persian cavalry facing Parmenion on the

left he moved across his Thessalian

cavalry to reinforce him

despite his overwhelming numbers de

Reyes held his position behind a small

River the Panera's and waited for

Alexander to attack

he didn't have to wait long

Alexander called out to his men urging

them to fight bravely picking out some

by name then at the head of his armies

right wing he charged

[Music]

once again the speed and shock of the

Macedonian advance sent the enemy

reeling back but in the center of the

battlefield the Macedonian phalanx was

in trouble its effort to keep up with

Alexander its formation had become

disordered now in fierce fighting with

de rias's Greek mercenaries the Phalanx

was slowly being driven back

Alexandr seeing the danger regrouped and

led the companions in a headlong charge

straight at the persian center

the Greek mercenaries threatened on

their flank were soon in disarray and

the Macedonian phalanx was able to

resume its advance

Alexander fought his way towards the

Great King Darius himself

rather than face this apparently mad and

fearless Macedonian King Darius fled the

battlefield in his royal chariot

meanwhile the Macedonian left-wing under

Parmenion was in a desperate fight

against the best of the Persian cavalry

if the Persians could break through here

they could envelop Alexander's army and

snatch victory from the jaws of defeat

but Parmenion and his troops forced

doggedly and continued to hold the

Persians of babe

as the news that derailleurs had fled

spread among his troops they abandoned

the fight and tried to save themselves

[Music]

the battle turned into a massacre

Ptolemy's one of the Macedonian

commanders told Alexander there were so

many Persian dead his men had used them

to fill a deep ravine so they could

cross over it

[Music]

the Battle of Issus was a stunning

victory for Alexander and amongst the

spoils of victory

Werder iose his wife mother and three

children all taken alive and well

treated by Alexander

with the Persian field army in retreat

Alexander now turned to subdue the

western territories of the Persian

Empire

[Music]

the next year 3 3 2 the coastal cities

of Phoenicia submitted to Alexander

ending Persian naval power in the

Mediterranean but the island city of

Tyre resisted

[Music]

tires defenders fought bravely and

skillfully even when Alexander began

building a causeway to the island

protected by two giant siege towers

which they counter attacked with fire

ships but after seven months the city

walls were breached and tyre fell

most of its citizens were killed or

enslaved Gaza too was taken by siege

Alexander continued to pollution on the

Nile Delta where the Persian governor of

Egypt surrendered the entire province to

Alexander along with the royal treasury

[Music]

at Memphis priests of this ancient land

welcomed Alexander as their Liberator

from Persian rule and crowned him

Pharaoh at the mouth of the Nile he

founded a new city Alexandria then

traveled to the desert Oracle of C WA

where according to some accounts the

priests welcomed him a son of Amal king

of the gods

[Music]

Alexander returned East to tyre where in

331 BC he received news of trouble back

home despite his great victories over

the Persians many Greeks regarded

Alexander as a tyrant king aigis of

Sparta with Persian support now launched

a revolt against Macedonia an tippet ur

Alexander's commander in Greece was

already dealing with rebellion in Thrace

but he quickly marched south and met

agus in battle near the city of

megalopolis

even the legendary Spartans were now no

match for Macedonian military power

[Music]

[Applause]

the Spartan army was crushed King agus

himself was among the Fallen

[Music]

with his base in Greece secure once more

Alexander advanced towards the Persian

heartland seeking a final showdown with

Darius he received a letter from the

Persian King offering him a fortune in

gold his daughter in marriage and half

his Empire in exchange for peace but

Alexander's stunning victories all the

Oracles and acclamations that now

convinced him that his destiny was to

rule the world he rejected the Persian

kings offer he didn't want half the

Empire he was coming to take it all

research and artwork of this video comes

from Osprey publishing extensive range

of books on ancient history every Osprey

book examines a particular battle

campaign or combat unit in authoritative

meticulous detail and with more than

3000 titles they cover everything from

ancient warfare to modern conflict visit

their website to see their online

catalog if you'd like to help us make

more history videos please visit our

patreon page huge thanks to Invicta for

their help in making this series you can

find out more about the remarkable life

of Alexander the Great in their moments

in history series

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