Acid and Alkali (THERMAL IMAGING) – Periodic Table of Videos

published on July 17, 2020

Even really simple experiments can sometimes teach you interesting things and unexpected things especially if you look at the temperatures what we're going to do is to show you two different experiments the first one is pouring sulfuric acid

Into water cool now just a thermal-imaging camera cannot penetrate water and it cannot penetrate glass so we've done the experiment in a plastic beaker so you can see through the beaker and see the inside surface of the water

Now the acid is much denser than water so it sinks to the bottom but then the water begins to dilute the acid and the acid interacts with water and generates Heat the interaction is the water molecules interacting with the H+ ions

And the so4 2 minus ions so the cations and the anions from the acid and since the acid we're pouring in already has some water there will be a degree of ionization and when you dilute it it will ionize more and there's more water

That can solvate that's interact with each of the ions so if you watch the first thing that's interesting is that the acid layer gets really hot but the next thing that's interesting is that you know that hot things rise but the

Acid layer stays hot and the water on top stays relatively cold and the reason for this is that the acid is far denser than the water so even with the heating it's not light enough to convict up and so what you have to do is distr the acid

With a rod and then it starts mixing things up I was quite surprised by the lack of convection but it really demonstrates how important it is to stir a reaction mixture

If you didn't stir it and we're doing some reaction each time you pulled in the acid you pour it in slightly differently and each time you might get a slightly different result so if you want to make a really reproducible

Experiment you need to stir it hard all the time the obvious next step and our second experiment is to see what happens if you dissolve an alkali metal hydroxide in water these hydroxides are solids at room temperature and they are

Sold as pellets rather like small beads and when you tip these beads into water they sink to the bottom and then the water begins to dissolve the pellets now you've got to understand that the solid consists of metal iron metal plus and

OAH – and there's a whole array of these not just two lines and the ions because the metal glass is attracted to a h- require energy to separate them and that energy has to be put in however because these ions are small they interact with

The water and the water molecules interacting with both a positive ions and the negative ions give out heat in the case of alkaline metal hydroxides the energy that you get from the water interacting with the ions is more than

The energy then you need to pull those ions apart so overall dissolving hydroxides generates heat so if we look those pellets at the bottom of the beaker start glowing quite hot and this

Solution just above it starts to glow hot but just like the acid that solution is very dense far denser than ordinary water so it doesn't shoot up towards the surface but that concentrated layer gets hotter and hotter and you have to be

Quite careful because you can generate a lot of heat without realizing just as before if you stir it you can get that heat to go up into the bulk of the solution but unlike the acid because the pellets are solid they stay at the

Bottom of the beaker so you keep on generating the heat at the bottom of the beaker but very slowly you can see the heat spreading if I'd been asked beforehand what would happen with the temperature in these two and how they

Would behave if I thought a long time I might have guessed but even to me it was quite a surprise to see this in reality the process that's generating the heat is fundamentally the same in both cases

This is water molecules interacting with positive and negative ions the way they interact is very slightly different because in one case you have a metal ion that is positive in the other case you have an H+ ion a proton which is very

Very much smaller because H+ doesn't have any electrons around it so the quantum mechanics of the interaction is slightly different but on a more global scale the mechanism is pretty similar so what the take-home messages is that both

Acids and alkalis dissolve in water generating heat and very dense solutions special thanks to Google's making and science team for helping out with this series of thermal-imaging videos to see more films they've helped make with

Various creators across YouTube check out the link on the screen or in the video description and likewise there are more links if you'd like to see films made by us here at periodic videos over the years including videos on each and

Every element on the periodic table

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